Women’s economy and labour in Thailand
Table of Contents
Occupation and income
Since 1995, the status of women in Thailand has developed significantly, resulting in more women in the workforce and the promotion of equality opportunity. http://www.gender.go.th/report/report50/economy.html Prior to the mid-nineties, women were restircited to traditional forms of labour. The Labor Force Survey found that 45.5 percent of the female labor force in the entire system. Broken down by sector, women make up: 42.6 percent of the agricultural labor force. 47.2 percent of the non-agriculture sector 61.8 percent of the hospitality and service industry 59.3 percent of the education industry 54.3 percent of the manufacturing industry 33.0 percent. of the public administration labor force Women play a significant role in the unpaid labor force. Female leadership in local communities has been instrumental to the development of Thailand. For example, Savings Cooperatives of local communities managed by women contribute significantly to economic development in the region (OTOP). This facilitates for people in that community having an occupation and extra income. Thai women is are becoming increasingly important for the economic growth of communities. Additionally, women have an important role in the economic recovery of the country. Women in Thailand were traditionally associated with the following skills and industries: silk, textiles, artificial flowers, umbrella, seafood privatization and grinding stones. Over the last decade, the government has continued to support vocational training for women. In the past, this vocational training was associated with traditional skills and gender specific roles. Over the last 10 years vocational training has come to include new industries and skills including welding, administration, electronic technicians, manufacturing etc. This leads to more opportunities and potential career options for women. As a result, women are a greater variety of occupations. The current women’s income increased from 65.4 percent to 80.0 percent of total revenues compared with men http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/The%20Millennium%20Development%20Goals%20Report%202008.pdf. Additionally, data provided by the Ministry of Industry that women are increasingly involved in the development of small business activities.
Status of work
Compared to the status of men, women have better wages, welfare and labor protection. As a result, women have more equal opportunities in the employment sector. This can be largely attributed to a series of laws as outlined in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 2007 Report. The following sections outline the importance given to equal rights and equal opportunity: Section 30 states persons are equal in law and the equal protection of the laws. Men and women have equal rights. Unfair discrimination against individuals because of differences in ethnic origin, age, physical condition and health, status of the economic individual or social status, religious beliefs, education or political opinions is not contrary to the provisions of the Constitution shall not be made. Section 86, the State shall promote people of working age have a job. Labor protection especially young workers and women, organize employee relations system, social security and including workers’ compensation to be fair. In addition, Labor Protection Act in 1998, which is protects workers and includes the following sections that are of particular significance for women’s rights. Section 15, the workers, men and women must be treated equally. Unless the conditions or is unable to perform such work. Section 16, prohibits an employer or a supervisor or inspectors or supervisor sexual harassment action to employees who are women or children. Section 53, and International Labor Organization Convention No. 100 concerning equal remuneration for the work. According in the case of the same appearance, quality and quantity, employers must pay overtime, the holiday work and overtime pay to the employee, regardless of their sex. Section 59, the employer shall pay all employed women who are required to take leave for childbearing, which includes equal wages in the period of leave but not more than 45 days.With the intention to ensure the wages are paid by the employer to the employee on maternity leave, the employee will be paid at the time of said leave. The wage must be equal to the regular wages paid for full time work. For the current work status of women, status of Women Thai has a better overall performance by government employees is 44.67 percent, private company officers 43.24 percent, employer status both agricultural and non-agricultural 43.94 percent, personal work 37.71 percent, family workers are not paid 64.39 per cent (http://service.nso.go.th/nso/news/sns/4902.pdf). Although the status of women in Thailand has improved, it should be noted that 64.39 percent of women are still engaged in unpaid labour (mainly household).
Despite women in Thailand having equal opportunity to enter the workforce, many still suffer a bias of unequal pay. Research from the Social Security Wages and Gender (2005) found that the average monthly income for male employees is higher than the average monthly income for female employees, especially in the high-income bracket. However, overall the wage gap between men and women has gradually dropped each month since 1998; the average wage of men and women has dropped from 12.37 percent in 1998 to 4.71 percent in 2006.
The Labor Force Survey, Office for National Statistics in 2005 revealed the impact and significance of female workers on the total Thai workforce. However many of these workers do not have access to welfare and the Labor Protection Act of 1997 as their work is considered ‘informal’. 46.8 percent of female workers in Thailand are thought to be ‘informal workers’, 92.9 percent of which is work conducted in and around a household; 68.47 percent of which are retail workers. Other figures include 57.7 percent of manufacturing, and 45.3 percent of the agriculture industry. In addition to the work do at home is considered a type of shadow economy that many workers are women. The Statistical Office has conducted a survey on the work done at home. In 2005, 549,803 people, mostly women 76.3 percent and 23.7 percent were male, were found to conduct full time unpaid house work. Most of these informal workers are women who do not have social security and sustenance. Although the Ministry of Labor has issued regulations in 2004’s to protect the right of payment to homeworker.
Degree of Thai workers
National Statistical Office conducted a survey in 2004 and found that those who were employed in Thailand had spent an average of 6-7 years in a form of educational institution. On average, women had a lower level of education than men. The study also found that since the development of a formal education system in Thailand, there are more widespread levels of education.
Mechanisms contributing to the work of women http://www.gender.go.th/report/report50/economy.html
As mentioned above. In addition to Thai women being participate major force in the economic development of their families and country. Thai women still have an important to the development of family, important roles of the mother, especially caring small children. The burden of economic and the family are the pressure on the health of women. In order to reduce the burden and pressure of working women, the government should establish a mechanism to facilitate the work of the Thai women hereinafter 1. A serious measures to create environment and mechanisms a conducive to breastfeeding women in lactation and child during the first 3 years. 2. Measures flexibility in the employment of women consistent with the burden in rearing children.
See alsoEmployment-to-population Ratio Informal workers in Thailand Oppression of female labour in Thailand Thailand Srinakharinwirot University