Segregation of education by gender in Thailand
Table of Contents
Historically education in Thailand was provided by Buddhist monks and was only available to boys, but today the gender gap in the area of education is closing with equal access for female and male school-age students. Education in Thailand is free and compulsory for all Thai citizens between the ages of 6 and 15; children between 3 and 5 have the opportunity to attend nursery and preschool.The Thai education system.
Employment segregation by gender in ThailandEmployment segregation by gender in Thailand.
Thailand’s transformation in the 1960s from an agricultural to an industrial economy reduced the demand for labour on farms and at the same time increased the demand for unskilled labour in factories. During this time many unskilled women workers migrated from poor rural areas to urban areas where they worked for minimum wages or sometimes even less. In 2011 the majority of Thai women workers were concentrated in the agricultural, wholesale, retail and manufacturing sectors, which employed approximately 39.17%, 16.22% and 14.63% of the total female labor force, respectively, in comparison to 69.6%, 8.1% and 2.3% in 1980. These figures demonstrate the large-scale reallocation of women workers from the agricultural sector to the retail, trade, and manufacturing sectors. The types of jobs occupied by each gender are also different. The industries/occupations that Thai men are predominantly employed within include:
- Agricultural (55.8%)
- Mining and quarrying (83.6%)
- Public administration and defense (64.0%)
- Water supply (69.7%)
- Construction (84.6%)
- Transportation storage (86.9%)
- Information and communication (64.8%)
- Professional, Scientific and technical (52.4%)
- Administrative and support services (57.7%)
- Electricity, gas, stream supply industry (81.17%)
The numbers in the parentheses show the number of men workers as a percentage of the total employment in each industry (occupation) as of 2011. Women were, in contrast, employed predominantly in:
- Accommodation and food service (64.2%)
- Financial and insurance activities (55.5%)
- Real estate activities (55.7%)
- Education (61.1%)
- Human health and social work (75.9%)
- Activities of household employers (82.1%)
- Activities in international organizations (100.0%)
- Other service activity industry (55.3%).
The numbers in the parentheses show the number of women workers as a percentage of the total employment in each industry (occupation) as of 2011. In 2011, women accounted for 46.21% of the total employed population in Thailand. Nevertheless, as of 2011 almost a third of women workers in Thailand were unpaid family workers, in contrast to 16% of men. Out of the total female labour force, 50.78% work informally. Many of these workers work part-time or are temporarily employed in family businesses. As of the first quarter of 2012, 43.93% of Thai women, besides those who were too young or too old, were out of the labour force due to household duties and 22.21% were students. Out of the total female labour force, more than half were engaged in informal work – and a similar trend can be observed in male workers. Occupational segregation by gender is widely associated with gender wage disparity. Men’s jobs in Thailand are mostly blue-collar jobs, which require specific skills with higher pay, while women’s jobs are mostly white-collar jobs. After controlling for the effects of the differences in education, work experience and location, a study by Son (2011) indicates that wages paid largely contribute to the income disparity between men and women. Preference of workers and cultural factors that lead to job segregation are causes of gendered wage disparity as well. Labour markets are embedded with societal gender norms that shape the preferences of employers and workers on choices of jobs that are appropriate to each gender.
ECS 485 B01Current economic problems and issues The members of Group 3 are: 1.Ms.Pratinthip Inkhai(DUKKY) 2.Ms.Panumart Lakthan(BONUS) 3.Ms.Thanchanog Satient(PANN) 4.Ms.Thananan Laohasinnarong(GAMES) 5.Ms.Benyaporn Punto(BEN) 6.Ms.Pattranit Sukumal(UN)