Millennium Development Goals
The Millennium Development Goals were officially established at the Millennium Summit in 2000, where 189 world leaders adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration, from which the eight-goal action plan, the ‘Millennium Development Goals’, was particularly promoted.
Table of Contents
- 1 Goals
- 1.1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
- 1.2 Achieve universal Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base Variables: School Enrolment
- 1.3 Promote gender equality and empower women
- 1.4 Reduce child mortality
- 1.5 Improve maternal health
- 1.6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
- 1.7 Ensure environmental sustainability
- 1.8 Develop a global partnership for development
- 2 Progress reports
- 3 References
- 4 See Also
- 5 External links
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were developed out of the eight chapters of the United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000. The eight goals and 21 targets include:
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
- Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day.
- Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people.
- Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
Achieve universal Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base Variables: School Enrolment
- Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary education/primary schooling.
- See Net Intake Rate and Net Enrolment Ratio (NER) .
Promote gender equality and empower women
- Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015.
- Indicators for goal 3:
3.1 – Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base Variables: School Enrolment (UNESCO)
3.2 – Ratio of literate women to men, 15-24 years old (UNESCO)
3.3 –Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector (ILO)
3.4 – Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base Variables: Political Empowerment
- More on MDG3
Reduce child mortality
- Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the Under-Five Mortality Rate.
Improve maternal health
- Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the Maternal death/maternal mortality ratio.
- Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health.
- Video update by United NationsFPA on maternal mortality data:
Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
- Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS/AIDS.
- Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.
- Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.
Ensure environmental sustainability
- Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources.
- Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss.
- Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation (for more information see the entry on water supply).
- By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers.
Develop a global partnership for development
- Develop further an open trading and financial system that is rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory. Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction—nationally and internationally.
- Address the special needs of the least developed countries. This includes tariff and quota free access for their exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries; and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous official development assistance for countries committed to poverty reduction.
- Address the special needs of landlocked and small island developing States.
- Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term.
- In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.
- In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications
The UNDP works in many countries and provides progress reports of how far or close countries are to attaining the 8 MDGs. Here is an example of the Progress Chart as provided by the UNDP.
For a listing of all UNDP country websites and information on their concurrent MDG progress, please follow this link.
- Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Women and African Economic Development
- [Statistics:School Enrolment]
- [Statistics:Literacy Rates]
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics
- Education for All
- Gloria Steinem
- Access to Education
- Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base Variables: School Enrolment
- Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base Variables: Political Empowerment
- Maternal Mortality
- Adolescent Birth Rate
- Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector
- Under-Five Mortality Rate
- Information Guide for Arab Millennium Development Goal Reports
- Access to Water and Sanitation
- Access to land
- Primary Completion Rates
- Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Women and African Economic Development
- Net Intake Rate
- Net Enrolment Ratio (NER)
MDG1 Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
- FAO: Global hunger declining, but still unacceptably high
- FAO: 925 million in chronic hunger worldwide
- FAO: video on hunger figures for 2010
MDG 3 Promote gender equality and empower women
- Online Discussion on Finding New Ways to Empower Women
MDGs as a whole
- http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Host.aspx?Content=Products/ProgressReports.htm Progress report report 2008 launched on 2008-09-11
- http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm United Nations Millennium Declaration
- http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals The Millennium Goals (UN Site)
- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/in_depth/millennium_development_goals/html/default.stm BBC Summary 2005 of UN Millennium Goals
- http://esl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ Millennium Development Goals Indicators: MDG Dashboard (downloadable database, updated 2/2014)
- http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg UN Stats Division – MDGs
- http://www.developmentgoals.org – World Bank
- UNDP Country Program listing
Progress and regional reports about gender equality and MDGs
- UN Millennium Project 2005. Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women. Task Force on Education and Gender Equality.
There are many practical steps that can be taken to reduce inequalities based on gender, which hinder the potential to reduce poverty and achieve high levels of well-being in societies around the world. Those detailed in Taking Action include strengthening opportunities, increasing access, investing in infrastructure, guaranteeing rights, eliminating inequality in employment, increasing women’s representation in government and reducing violence against girls and women.
- United Nations Women Watch
with links to documents in Arabic | Chinese | English | French | Russian | Spanish
- Women's Environment and Development Organization (WEDO) Women’s Empowerment, Gender Equality and the Millennium Development Goals (2004)
- ECLAC/CEPAL, Millennium Development Goals 2006: a look at Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2007 http://www.eclac.cl/mdg/goal_3_en.html (EN)
- ECLAC/CEPAL , Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio. Informe 2006: una mirada a la igualdad entre los sexos y la autonomía de la mujer en ALC, 2007 http://www.eclac.org/mdg/obj_3_es.html (ES)
- Information Guide for Arab Millennium Development Goal Reports 2008-09-14
- Progress of the World's Women: 2008/2009