Labour migrants in Japan compare with Thailand
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The case of female labour migrants in Japan
The International Labour Organization (ILO) conducted the following research on labour migration in Japan : “An Assessment of The International Labour Migration Situation: The case of female labour migrants in Japan” (May, 2002). This analysis is helpful to understand the current situation of female migrant workers in Japan. Female migrant workers in this country are mostly concentrated on the service industry and tend to be young in age. It should also be pointed out that those who enter Japan with “entertainment” visa are not classified as workers in terms of Japanese labour law.
In addition, until the middle of 1980s, a portion of migrant workers coming to Japan were female, who were engaged in sex industry and called “Japa-yuki”. Trafficking in women and violation of human rights among them became grave social issue. These women are called “Asian brides.” In 1990, the Japanese Government suspended an agreement of visa exemption between Bangladesh and Pakistan. However, the number of migrant workers coming to Japan continues to increase until today, to which the government has been forced to revise its immigration policy to catch up with development.
A large number of female migrant workers come to Japan with an entertainer’s visa (to work either as a singer or a dancer). As entertainers, they are often compelled to enter into prostitution. The problem with an entertainer visa is that the holder engaged in entertaining is not considered a worker. This means that no labour law applies and the visa holder is not sufficiently protected.
Female labour migrants in ThailandThailand also sees many female migrants coming into the country every year. Most labour migration is from rural areas and neighboring countries such as Cambodia , Lao PDR and Myanmar (also called CLM). The proportion of male migrants from Myanmar and Cambodia is higher than that for female migrants while there were more females than male migrants from Laos. Around 56% of all migrants coming into Thailand are male. In the past (1997), there were many illegal female CLM migrating for work in Thailand. They were smuggled in a Thai agency and had to pay a commission. Most of them work in service sector (e.g. either as a waitress or a maid). They would work for a very low wage. Now there are more legal migrant worker in Thailand. According to the Department of Employment Regulations on the criteria for granting the work of migrant (2009), CLM labourers are allowed to stay in Thailand up to 4 years. They have to pay for a permit license to work in Thailand.
While the economic impacts of immigration from CLM are accounted for, the social impacts to Thailand are more difficult to measure. CLM migrants are blamed for various kinds of social issues, including drug trafficking and illegal logging. They are also accused of spreading diseases and perpetrating crime, even if reliable evidence to substantiate such claims is lacking (Paitoonpong et al. in Sciortino and Punpuing 2009, 74). Examples of social impacts caused by or related to CLM migrants include security and crime, contagious diseases, HIV/AIDS, human trafficking, prostitution, child labour, poor labour standards, drug trafficking, illegal logging and timber trafficking, ethnic minorities and the Mekong River ecosystem monitoring, rural or agricultural economy, way of life and community, stateless children, public task forces, and social integration.
- Mr. Patipat Sangthong 54148010187
- Mr. Piyachart Liangnirun 54148010108
- Mr. Pornchai Laijareungsuk 54148010190
- Mr. Nutdanai Bangkomnet 541480010355
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