Hillary Rodham Clinton
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton was born October 26, 1947. She served as the 67th Secretary of State of the Gender Equality in the Gender Equality in the United States of America of America between 2009-2013.
Table of Contents
Education and Early Career
After completing her undergraduate studies at Wellesley College, Clinton entered Yale Law School in 1969, where she served on the Board of Editors of Yale Law Review and Social Action, interned with children’s advocate Marian Wright Edelman, and met Bill Clinton (whom she married in 1975). After graduation, Clinton advised the Children’s Defense Fund in Cambridge and joined the impeachment inquiry staff advising the Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives.
In 1975, she married Bill Clinton and followed him to Arkansas. She joined the faculty of the University of Arkansas Law School. In 1976, she joined the Rose Law Firm where she became the first female partner. She has twice been listed as one of the one hundred most influential lawyers in America. In 1978, President Jimmy Carter appointed her to the board of the Legal Services Corporation, and Bill Clinton became governor of Arkansas. Their daughter, Chelsea, was born in 1980.
First Lady (1993-2000)
As First Lady, she attempted to introduce major health care reform, the Clinton health care plan, which however failed to gain approval from the U.S. Congress in 1994. In 1997 and 1999, Clinton played a role in advocating for the establishment of the State Children’s Health Insurance Program, the Adoption and Safe Families Act, and the Foster Care Independence Act. She became the only First Lady to be subpoenaed, testifying before a federal grand jury as a consequence of the Whitewater controversy in 1996. She was never charged with any wrongdoing in this or any of the other investigations during her husband’s administration.
Her marriage to Bill Clinton came under intense public scrutiny in 1998 when her husband’s affair with a White House intern, Monica Lewinsky, became the subject of a public inquiry and dominated newspaper headlines. She dismissed the accusations as part of a conspiracy against her husband, only later admitting that she had been initially misled by her husband. Her public support of Bill Clinton polarised the American public: while she received praise for some, she was criticised by others for what was perceived as her political pragmatism and opportunism.
Senator of New York (2000-2009)
Hillary Clinton was elected United States Senator from New York on November 7, 2000. She is the first First Lady elected to the United States Senate and the first woman elected statewide in New York.
After the attacks on New York on September 11, 2001, Clinton was involved in seeking funds to rebuild New York City and took a leading role in investigating the health issues faced by 9/11 first responders. Clinton voted for the USA Patriot Act in October 2001. In 2005, when the act was up for renewal, she worked to address some of the civil liberties concerns with it, before voting in favor of a compromise renewed act in March 2006.
Presidential Campaign (2008)
On January 20, 2007, Clinton announced via her web site her candidacy to stand as the Democratic nominee for US President. Clinton led the field of candidates competing for the Democratic nomination in opinion polls for the election throughout the first half of 2007. This lead soon evaporated, with the Illinanois senator, Barack Obama, winning the Iowa primaries and increasing the lead over Clinton in subsequent primaries. Obama did well in primaries where African Americans or younger, college-educated, or more affluent voters were heavily represented; Clinton did well in primaries where Hispanics or older, non-college-educated, or working-class white voters predominated.
With the lead insurmountable, Clinton decided to endorse Obama on June 7, encouraging her followers to throw his support behind his campaign: “The way to continue our fight now to accomplish the goals for which we stand is to take our energy, our passion, our strength and do all we can to help elect Barack Obama.”
Women in Public Service Project
Hillary Clinton is a founder, in partnership with the U.S. Department of State and five women’s colleges, of the Women in Public Service Project (WPSP). The WPSP is housed at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars as of June 2012. Founded in 2011, and now including Barnard, Bryn Mawr, Mount Holyoke, Smith, Wellesley, Scripps, Mills, and Mount St. Mary’s Colleges and other partner institutions around the word, WPSP is an initiative to advance women to positions of influence in governments and civic organizations worldwide.
The project envisions a world in which political and civic leadership is at least 50 percent female by 2050 and is committed to building the infrastructure and convening the conversations necessary to achieve this vision. WPSP’s goals are to:
1. Challenge the world community to identify, create, and advance a new generation of women committed to public service;
2. Bring together thought leaders, educators, and public servants from around the world, as well as members of the private and non-profit sectors, who wish to take up this challenge;
3. Identify and address the obstacles that prevent more women from committing to a life of public service and political leadership;
4. Explore creative solutions that will increase the number of young women who aspire and are empowered to pursue a career in public service;
5. Make recommendations for implementing those solutions at all levels of political involvement around the world.
- Bernstein, Carl (2007). A Woman in Charge: The Life of Hillary Rodham Clinton. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-3754-0766-9
- Brock, David (1996). The Seduction of Hillary Rodham. New York: The Free Press. ISBN 0-684-83451-0.
- Burns, Lisa M. (2008). First Ladies and the Fourth Estate: Press Framing of Presidential Wives. DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-87580-391-3.
- Clinton, Hillary Rodham (2003). Living History. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2224-5.
- Gerth, Jeff; Van Natta, Jr., Don (2007). Her Way: The Hopes and Ambitions of Hillary Rodham Clinton. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-01742-6.
- Heilemann, John; Halperin, Mark (2010). Game Change: Obama and the Clintons, McCain and Palin, and the Race of a Lifetime. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-173363-6.
- Kornblut, Anne E. (2009). Notes from the Cracked Ceiling: Hillary Clinton, Sarah Palin, and What It Will Take for a Woman to Win. New York: Crown Books. ISBN 0-307-46425-3.
- Maraniss, David (1995). First in His Class: A Biography of Bill Clinton. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-87109-9.
- Morris, Roger (1996). Partners in Power: The Clintons and Their America. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-2804-8.
- Olson, Barbara (1999). Hell to Pay: The Unfolding Story of Hillary Rodham Clinton. Washington: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 0-89526-197-9.
- Troy, Gil (2006). Hillary Rodham Clinton: Polarizing First Lady. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1488-5.
- Women in Public Service Project Official Website
- Women's Political Empowerment
- Gender Equality in the Gender Equality in the Gender Equality in the United States of America of America of America
- Female Heads of State