Female Workers in the Non-Agricultural Sector
Table of Contents
- 1 Introduction
- 2 The Situation of Female Workers in the Non-Agricultural Sector
- 3 External events
- 4 The Protection of Female Workers in Thailand
- 4.1 Strategy 1: Promoting labour protection with effective Occupational Safety, Health and Environment (OSH) standards
- 4.2 Strategy 2: Promoting and strengthening the capacity of OSH networks
- 4.3 Strategy 3: Developing and managing OSH knowledge
- 4.4 Strategy 4: Developing an OSH information system
- 4.5 Strategy 5: Developing an effective mechanism for OSH administration
- 5 References
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 Group 9
Workers in the Non-Agricultural sector are important to the economy of Thailand especially as the country is now focused on the manufacturing and service industries. The proportion of the industry represents 39% of the GDP, and the service sector irepresents 52.4% of the GDP. The estimated population of Thailand is 64 million and women make more than 50% of the population (2010 figures).Bank of Thailand,(2012). Structure of the Economy in Year 2011Retrieved 26 August 2012 Women also constitute the majority of workers in the industry and service sectors.
The Situation of Female Workers in the Non-Agricultural Sector
Here are some figures about the work of female workers in the non-agricultural sector from 2011 until June 2012: according to a survey by the National Statistical Office, in the first quarter of 2011, the total share of female workers in Thailand was 17.17 million, of which 11.42 million were in the non-agricultural sector.National Statistical Office Thailand,(2012). Employed Persons by Industry for Whole Kingdom : 2011 – 2012Retrieved 26 August 2012 This trend has continued to rise steadily since then.
The 2011 Tohoku earthquake
The 2011 Tohoku earthquakeISPI,(2012). The Japanese Economy after the Tohoku EarthquakeRetrieved 26 August 2012Fact And Detail website,(2012). ECONOMIC RECOVERY AFTER THE MARCH 2011 EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMIRetrieved 26 August 2012 that took place on the northeast coast of Honshu island, in Japan, triggered the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.International Atomic Energy Agency,(2011). Fukushima Nuclear Accident Update LogRetrieved 26 August 2012 This disaster affected major Japanese automobile companies such as Toyota, Honda, and Nissan. These companies also have a manufacturing base in Thailand . As a result, total productions decreased and this affected the employment of female workers in Thailand. Around 180,000 people were affected – but only in the short term, since Japan can recover their damage hastily and the production bases in Thailand are produced continuously. After this disaster, the total employment in Thailand increased. Compared with the period before the disaster, the overall number of employed females increased from 17.36 to 18.17 million people. However, the female employment of the non-agricultural sector decreased, as it was caused by labour migration to the agricultural sector because the non-agricultural sector did not have enough resources to support every worker.
Thailand’s 2011 flood crisis
In late 2011, Thailand faced a flood crisisThomson Reuters Foundation,(2012).Thailand’s flood crisis and the economyRetrieved 26 August 2012 which affected many provinces in Thailand including the industrial states in Ayutthaya, Pathum Thani, Bangkok, and surrounding areas. This caused an impact on the electric appliances, motor vehicles and their parts, rice mills, etc. In the last quarter of 2011, the overall number of employed females decreased to 17.91 million people, which was caused by flood damage in all sectors. When the situation returned to normal, the industry came back to its average production, and as a result, employment in non-agricultural sector continued to rise. In 2012, the current Prime Minister of Thailand, Ms. Yingluck Shinawatra, started a policy to increase the minimum wage to 300 baht (around 7.5 Euro in 2012).Bangkokpost,(2012).300 baht minimum daily wageRetrieved 26 August 2012 This policy was first launched in 7 provinces: Bangkok, Nonthaburi, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Nakhon Pathom, Pathum Thani and Phuket on 1 April 2012 and wages will also be gradually increased in other provinces by 40% until up to 300 baht across the country by 2013.
After increasing the minimum wage, female employment in the non-agricultural sector decreased from 11.31 to 11.06 million. The majority of female workers in the manufacturing industries are concentrated in textiles and handicrafts, which require extremely skilled labour. When there is an increase in wages, most entrepreneurs do not want to increase their costs thus they reduce the labour force. In addition, workers who had paid premiums to the Social Security Fund every month will receive compensation to provide the female workers while they are unemployed.
The Protection of Female Workers in Thailand
Thailand has legislation to protect the rights of female workers in more than 13 sections in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (2007)Office of National Human Rights Commission of Thailand,(2007).Constitution of the Kingdom of ThailandRetrieved 26 August 2012 in the areas of health, safety, equality issues, among others: the legislation provides for women’s equality, such as the hours of work, giving pregnant women benefits and protecting women from being oppressed and abused by employers. Also, many institutions are involved in the protection of women’s rights, such as the Ministry of Labor, the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security and the Ministry of Public Health. The department who has the most important role is the Department of Labor Protection and Welfare, since it has issued the Master Plans on Occupational Safety, Health and Environment (OSH) Occupational Safety and Health Bureau,(2012).National Master Plan on Occupational Safety, Health and EnvironmentRetrieved 26 August 2012 to provide directions and guidelines for the development of OSH in Thailand. The National Master Plan covers 5 strategic issues as outlined below.
Strategy 1: Promoting labour protection with effective Occupational Safety, Health and Environment (OSH) standards
- Employers, employees and relevant parties follow the OSH standards/laws.
- OSH standards/laws are developed in accordance to the economic and social factors and are applicable for the current OSH situation.
- Develop OSH standards/laws that are consistent with the laws at international level
- Monitor, follow-up, and develop an effective OSH inspection system
- Conduct research/studies to develop innovations on OSH
- Promote and encourage establishments to implement sustainable OSH management system
Strategy 2: Promoting and strengthening the capacity of OSH networks
Existing OSH networks are strengthened and all relevant sectors get involved or actively participate in OSH activities.
- Encourage and support the establishment of an effective OSH network to cover all the relevant sectors
- Develop and strengthen the OSH network
- Expand the coverage and enhance the capacity by seeking collaboration with international OSH networks
Strategy 3: Developing and managing OSH knowledge
- Create an effective system to manage the body of knowledge on OSH and make sure it is being developed and fully functional.
- An OSH learning center for people at all ages has been established.
- OSH knowledge shall be accessible to all groups of population.
- Conduct research/studies to develop a body of knowledge on OSH that covers all sectors (including students at each educational level, both registered and unregistered workers, etc.)
- Promote and build-up technical capacity on OSH among relevant personnel in all sectors
- Create a network among the relevant organisations, both local and international, for OSH information and knowledge sharing
- Establish an OSH learning center
Strategy 4: Developing an OSH information system
Developing an information technology system to facilitate OSH administration and OSH services effectively
- Establish, develop, and integrate OSH databases and networks
- Build-up or develop the skills and capacity of OSH personnel in all sectors in information technology
- Develop and promote OSH information system and services
- Use of computer and communication technology for OSH information dissemination and public relations
Strategy 5: Developing an effective mechanism for OSH administration
Establish a policy framework, an administrative structure, plans, measures, work processes, procedures, tools and the necessary resources for the development of effective OSH administration
- Develop effective mechanisms to facilitate OSH administration and integrate OSH activities
- Encourage all relevant sectors to get involved or to actively participate in OSH administration and activities
- Develop a proactive public relation system for OSH
- Establish an autonomous agency to be responsible for OSH and unity in work environment.
- Srinakharinwirot University
- Female Workers in the Agricultural Sector
- Women and Thailand's industry sector
Group 9Group The members of ECS 485 Group 9 are:
1. Mr. Jaruwat Amesbutra
2. Miss Budsara Udompramaun
3. Mr. Sumetha Viriyaaksornsakun
4. Miss Asama Sasitanakornkeaw
5. Miss Natchaya Yatepat
6. Miss Nannaphat Chantharawong
7. Miss Benjira Akeudomsub
- Wikigender University student article Thailand, School of Economics and Public Policy, Srinakharinwirot University.