Table of Contents
The earliest documented forms of contraception were mentioned in myths about female gynaecology – and usually these are herbal or animal-based ointments and rituals. For example, Ancient Roman women wore a leather pouch containing a cat’s liver on their left foot during sex to prevent conception. Coitus interruptus, lactational, and certain barrier methods were also probably commonly practiced.
The rhythm method was developed in the early 20th century, when it was discovered that a woman only ovulates once per menstrual cycle. In the 1950s, methods of hormonal contraception and modern methods of fertility awareness were developed and received more widespread attention. In 1960 the FDA approved the first form of hormonal birth control, the History of Oral Contraception and the Sexual Revolution .
Impact on Women in the Developing World
It is estimated that one in three deaths related to pregnancy and childbirth could be avoided if all women had access to contraceptive services. However, in many countries, funding for family planning has been curtailed, and many low-income countries find themselves without adequate supplies of contraceptives.
According to the United Nations Population Fund (United NationsFPA), more than 200 million women who want to delay or cease childbearing — roughly one in six women of reproductive age — are in need of effective contraceptive methods. Substantial proportions of women in every country — more than 50 per cent in some — say their last birth was unwanted or mistimed.
The use of modern contraceptive methods, including voluntary sterilization, has generally increased rapidly over the past 30 years, especially in countries with strong family planning programs and support available through hospitals, medical and advisory organizations. However, progress has stalled in many low-income countries. The use of modern contraceptive methods has changed little in the past decade in sub-Saharan Africa, and is still low (less than 10 per cent in many countries). The Mapping multilateral development banks’ spending on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS and AIDS to contraception exposes women to greater risk of sexually transmitted diseases, notably HIV/AIDS/AIDS.
- Galvin, Rachel. Margaret Sanger’s “Deeds of Terrible Virtue” Humanities, National Endowment for the Humanities, September/October 1998, Volume 19/Number 5
- “Margaret Sanger Clinic, Statement of Significance”. National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. 1993-09-14. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=2157&ResourceType=Building. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
- Hunt, Lynn, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, R. Po-chia Hsia, and Bonnie G. Smith. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. Third ed. Vol. C. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009.
- Fryer P. (1965) ‘the Birth controllers’, London: Secker and Warburg and Dingwall EJ. (1953) ‘Early contraceptive sheaths’ BMJ, Jan 1: 40-1 in Lewis M. ‘A Brief history of condoms’ in Mindel A. (2000) ‘Condoms’, BMJ books
- Kippley, John; Sheila Kippley (1996). The Art of Natural Family Planning (4th addition ed.). Cincinnati, OH: The Couple to Couple League. p. 146. ISBN 0-926412-13-2. , which cites: