Table of Contents
- 1 Overview
- 2 Social Institutions
- 3 Key Gender Statistics
- 3.1 Education
- 3.2 Health
- 3.3 Employment
- 4 References
- 5 See Also
- 6 External Links
- CEDAW: ratified on 21 October 1981
- Optional Protocol to CEDAW: ratified on 9 May 2001
- National CEDAW report: 2008
- Maputo Protocol: N/A
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (UNSCR 1325): no national action plan
The Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) measures gender-based discrimination in social norms, practices and laws across 160 countries. The SIGI comprises country profiles, a classification of countries and a database; it serves as a research, policy and advocacy tool for the development community and policy makers. The SIGI covers five dimensions of discriminatory social institutions, spanning major socio-economic areas that affect women’s lives: discriminatory family code, restricted physical integrity, son bias, restricted resources and assets, and restricted civil liberties. The SIGI’s variables quantify discriminatory social institutions such as unequal inheritance rights, early marriage, violence against women, and unequal land and property rights.
In the Social Institutions and Gender Index 2014 Edition, Panama’s score was 0.0375, placing it among countries with a very low level of discrimination in social institutions. It had low or very low levels of discrimination in family code, physical integrity, son bias, resources and assets, but medium levels in civil liberties. Read the full country profile and access the data here: http://www.genderindex.org/country/panama
Key Gender Statistics
- In 2013, 90% of girls were enrolled in primary school compared to 91% of boys.
- In 2013, the ratio of female to male primary school enrolment was 99%.
- In 2012, 79% of girls were enrolled in secondary school compared to 73.5% of boys.
- In 2012, the ratio of female to male secondary enrolment was 108%.
- In 2010, 93% of women aged 15+ were literate compared to 95% of men.
- In 2010, women had on average 9.5 years of schooling compared to 9 years on average for men .
- In 2013, there were 64 maternal deaths, representing 85 deaths for 100,000 births.
- In 2013, the adolescent fertility rate was 77 births per 1,000 adolescent girls.
- There is no recent data available on the percentage of women with an unmet need for family planning.
- In 2013, 53% of the female working-age population was part of the labour force, while 86% of the male working-age population was part of the labour force.
- In 2013, women represented 37% of the total labour force.
- In 2012, 27% of women in the labour force were in vulnerable employment compared to 31 % men in the labour force.
- In 2012, 8.5% of women in the labour force were employed in the agriculture sector compared to 22% of men in the labour force.
- World Bank (2015), World Development Indicators (database), http://data.worldbank.org/products/wdi (accessed16 July 2015).
- Barro R. and J.W. Lee (2014), Educational Attainment Dataset, v.2.0, http://www.barrolee.com/
- Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI)
- Gender and Land Rights Database
- Women, Business and the Law: Creating economic opportunity for women
- UN Women Americas and the Caribbean
- HRW Panama
- OECD Gender Index Panama
- UN ECLAC Gender Affairs
- Regional Conference on Women in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Gender Equality Observatory
- UNESCO Institute of Statistics Panama
- UNDP Human development report 2015
- UNDP Latin America report 2015/2016
- Report on MDG Latin America and the Caribbean
- UNICEF Country Programme Panama