Table of Contents
- 1 Overview
- 2 The Women, Business and the Law
- 3 The FAO Gender and Land Rights Database
In recent years, Spain has been praised for its commitment to gender equality. In 2004 and 2008, Spain introduced pioneering legislation to uphold principles of gender equality in private and public life, and to combat against gender violence. The predominantly female cabinet appointed in 2008 under Prime Minister Jose Zapatero is setting new standards for female political participation. This is unfortunately not yet trickling down to employment conditions for the majority of women, where the salary pay gap is high and working women are obliged to juggle both employment and family responsibilities due to prevailing traditional stereotypes.
The Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) measures gender-based discrimination in social norms, practices and laws across 160 countries. The SIGI comprises country profiles, a classification of countries and a database; it serves as a research, policy and advocacy tool for the development community and policy makers.
The SIGI covers five dimensions of discriminatory social institutions, spanning major socio-economic areas that affect women’s lives: discriminatory family code, restricted physical integrity, son bias, restricted resources and assets, and restricted civil liberties. The SIGI’s variables quantify discriminatory social institutions such as unequal inheritance rights, early marriage, violence against women, and unequal land and property rights.
In the Social Institutions and Gender Index 2014 Edition , Spain has very low levels of discrimination against women in social institutions. It has lower discrimination in restricted access to resources and assets and higher discrimination in son bias. Read the full country profile and access the data here: http://www.genderindex.org/country/spain
Main laws in which Gender Equality is upheld:
- Organic Act 1/2004 of 28 December on Integrated Protection Measures against Gender Violence
- ORDEN PRE/525/2005, de 7 de marzo, por la que se da publicidad al Acuerdo de Consejo de Ministros por el que se adoptan medidas para favorecer la igualdad entre mujeres y hombres.
- Law on Guaranteeing Equality between Women and Men (‘Ley de Garantía de la Igualdad entre Hombres y Mujeres’) (2007). The aim of the law, which includes measure to transpose recent EU equality legislation, is to introduce gender equality in all spheres of social life. It aims to eliminate all direct or indirect discrimination between women and men, guaranteeing and fostering equal opportunities in political, economic, social and cultural life
In Spain, there is a persistence of patriarchal attitudes and traditional stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in Spanish society. This is affecting women’s ability to fully participate in the labour market since they are still expected to continue with their traditional roles in the household, giving her a ‘double workday’.
Women won the right to vote in 1931.In March 2008 Spain’s re-elected socialist government under Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero appointed a predominantly female cabinet. His 17-member team includes 9 female ministers – a record level in the country’s history. What is more, female ministers occupy important positions, including the Defence Ministry with Carmen Chacon; the Ministry of Public Works with Magdalena Alvarez; the Ministry of Education with Mercedes Cabrera; and the Ministry of Public Administrations with Elena Salgado. Maria Teresa Fernandez de la Vega remains Deputy Prime Minister. By other side, this cabinet has for the first time in Spain a Minister of Equality, Bibiana Aido (gender issues launch a ministerial level).
The participation rates of Spanish women (51.9%) have risen sharply in recent years, though they are still below the OECD average (56%). Differences between the male and female participation rates are still quite high (23.6% according to Eurostat figures). The insufficent public welfare resources and the emphasis on women’s responsibilities in the home directly affect the availability of women to participate in the labour market. According to research by the Instituto de Mujer, maternity/paternity leave is still also mainly taken by women. In 2000 it was requested by 99% of working mothers, compared with 98.4% in 2003. In other words, the roles and distribution of the domestic workload are unchanged. The salary gap between men and women in Spain is 17.3%, slightly below the OECD average (18%).
The number of women enrolling and graduating from university is increasing: it reached 54.25% in 2005-06. There is pronounced horizontal segregation: in pedagogy and translation and interpretation, women account for 80% of all students but only comprise 15% in engineering-related specialties.
- CEDAW, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Sixth periodic report of States parties: Spain
- OECD, Babies and Bosses: Key Outcomes of Spain compared to the OECD average (http://www.oecd.org/document/57/0,3343,en_33873108_33873806_39699257_1_1_1_1,00.html)
- A full set of data and articles on gender equality and inequalities in Spain may be found at the Www.migualdad.es/mujer
- Information may equally be found on the INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística) Website
Other websites in Spanish
- New: Instituto de la Mujer, Ministerio de Igualdad
- Instituto Nacional de Estadística
- Publicación Mujeres y hombres en España 2008
- ARTAU Políticas de igualdad
Websites in English, French or German
- The life of women and men in Europe – A statistical portrait, Eurostat, 2008
- Women in power still trapped by glass ceiling, EU report in English, 2008
The Women, Business and the Law
Where are laws equal for men and women?
The Women, Business and the Law, 2012 presents indicators based on laws and regulations affecting women’s prospects as entrepreneurs and employees. Several of these indicators draw on the Gender Law Library, a collection of over 2,000 legal provisions impacting women’s economic status. This report does not seek to judge or rank countries, but to provide information to inform discussions about women’s economic rights. Covering 128 economies, Women, Business and the Law provides data covering 6 areas: accessing institutions,using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court.Read more about the methodology.
The FAO Gender and Land Rights Database
The FAO Gender and Land Rights Database contains country level information on social, economic, political and cultural issues related to the gender inequalities embedded in those rights. Disparity on land access is one of the major causes for social and gender inequalities in rural areas, and it jeopardizes, as a consequence, rural food security as well as the wellbeing of individuals and families.
The Database offers information on the 6 following Categories:
- National legal frame
- International treaties and conventions
- Customary law
- Land tenure and related Institutions
- Civil society organizations
- Selected Land Related Statistics