Table of Contents
Slovenia has made good progress in Gender Equality, with legislation in place to protect and promote women’s rights and participation in the workplace and in political life. However, the legislation appears to be only having limited impact on the conditions for women to date, with less than 1/3 of all managers and senior officials women, and low political representation. The labour market remains gender segregated horizontally and vertically. Slovenia is currently ranked 51st in the World Economic Forum ‘s Global Gap Report (2008).
The Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) measures gender-based discrimination in social norms, practices and laws across 160 countries. The SIGI comprises country profiles, a classification of countries and a database; it serves as a research, policy and advocacy tool for the development community and policy makers.
The SIGI covers five dimensions of discriminatory social institutions, spanning major socio-economic areas that affect women’s lives: discriminatory family code, restricted physical integrity, son bias, restricted resources and assets, and restricted civil liberties. The SIGI’s variables quantify discriminatory social institutions such as unequal inheritance rights, early marriage, violence against women, and unequal land and property rights.
In the Social Institutions and Gender Index 2014 Edition , Slovenia has very low levels of discrimination against women in social institutions. It has lower discrimination in restricted access to resources and assets and higher discrimination in son bias. Read the full country profile and access the data here: http://www.genderindex.org/country/slovenia
- The Equal Opportunities Act of July 2002 provides a common basis for creating equal opportunities for women and men through further legislation. The Act defines and prohibits both direct and indirect discrimination. Moreover, the Act allows for positive measures to ensure equality and foresees the creation of Ombudsperson who will handle cases of unequal treatment.
- The Law on Labour Relations of 1 January 2003 introduced a number of new provisions on equal opportunities and equal treatment for women and men, partly in preparation for EU accession.
- In March 2004 the Penal Code was amended with numerous modifications relating to women’s issues inter alia, to misuse of prostitution, pornography, trafficking in human beings. The new amendments and supplements entered into force in May 2004.
Gender equality was first the responsibility of the Office for Women’s Policy, established in 1992. Currently gender equality is under the responsibility of the Office for Equal Opportunities established in 2003. Its tasks include monitoring and coordinating gender equality issues towards all the ministries and to participate in the preparation of laws and regulations. It also performs policy analysis, advocacy.
The labour market in Slovenia is strongly gender segregated horizontally and vertically. Women dominate in the service industries, including health, social work, Education, financial intermediation, catering and tourism. Women consist of less than a 1/3 of the workforce in engineering and construction sectors. There is a glass ceiling for promotion: despite a higher educational attainment than men, only 1/3 of women become managers, senior officials or legislators. According to ILO satistics, in 2003, women comprised 45.33% of total employment in the agricultural sector, 32.02% in the industrial sector and 54.85 in the service sector. In 2002 the difference between the average wages of women compared to those of men was 10.8 percentage points. In 2004, the activity rate was 52.5% for women and 65.9% for men. In 2004 the unemployment rate in women was higher by 0.7 percentage point than that in men. In 2003, 3.9% of women and 3% of men were in part-time employment.
Slovenia offers generous maternal and paternal leave. Maternal leave and Child care leave together amount to 365 days and the benefit paid is 100% of previous earnings. The father can take child-care leave to the same extent as the mother (260 days). In addition, paternity leave of 90 days (15 days immediately after the birth and 75 days until the child reaches 8) is offered to the father.
In 2000/2001, 57.2 % of undergraduate students were women. 59.2 % of all graduates were women.Among masters of science and specialists who completed their studies in 2001, 50.2 % were women, and in 2004, 54.4 %. In 2001, 298 students attained their doctoral degree, of which 49.0 were women. In 2003, the share of women who attained their Ph.D. decreased to 41.4 % and in 2004 to 40.6 per cent.
In Slovenia, the Life expectancy at birth is 79 years for Gender differences in life expectancy, females have a higher life expectancy average rate with 82 years, whereas men can expect an average of 76 years. Thus, both genders have a higher average life expectancy compared to the global average of 66 years for men and 71 years for women. The adult mortality rate (per 1000 adults between 15-59 years) is lower with 94 in contrast with the global average of 176. The maternal mortality ratio is measured with 18 deaths per 100000 live births, which is comparably low when considering the global average of 260 deaths. The under-5 mortality rate has decreased from 1990 till today, and is stated as 3 deaths per 1000 live births, which includes both sexes and is very much below the global average of 60 deaths. Prevalence of HIV occurs at one case per 1000 adultus aged from 15-49 years, which is also far below the average of 8 cases globally. The prevalence of tuberculosis is significantly lower with 14 cases per 100000, than the global average with 201 cases. Tobacco smoking shows a some contrast between the genders; 31,6% of 15+ years old men are regular smokers, and 21,3% of women smoke regularly. The difference beteween genders is also not very significant concearning obesity; 28,1% of the male adult 20+ population and 25,9% of females are considered to suffer from this illnesshttp://www.who.int/gho/countries/svn.pdf.
Women won the right to vote in 1945. Slovenia operates a quota system for political parties candidates’ lists: 25% of candidates must be of another gender. Women are still largely underrepresented in local authorities, and only one minister in the current government is a woman. At the last elections in 2004, 11 women were elected (12.2 %), and after the final distribution of seats in the 90-member Parliament, 12 women became MPs, accounting for 13.3 %.
- CEDAW, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, Fourth periodic report of States parties. Slovenia (2007)
- International Labor Organization (ILO), “Facts and Figures on Gender Equality in Slovenia”, [www.ilo.org/public/english/region/eurpro/budapest/download/gender/slovenia.pdf] http://www.who.int/gho/countries/svn.pdf
The Women, Business and the Law
Where are laws equal for men and women?
The Women, Business and the Law, 2012 presents indicators based on laws and regulations affecting women’s prospects as entrepreneurs and employees. Several of these indicators draw on the Gender Law Library, a collection of over 2,000 legal provisions impacting women’s economic status. This report does not seek to judge or rank countries, but to provide information to inform discussions about women’s economic rights. Women, Business and the Law provides data covering 6 areas: accessing institutions,using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court. Read more about the methodology.