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The Republic of Slovakia has shown real commitment to gender equality since 1993, with national strategies and programmes in place to combat discrimination. Widening salary gaps between men and women, the absence of mechanisms to encourage female political participation and prevailing stereotypes of women that discriminate against their participation in the public sphere continue to hinder real progress in gender equality.
The Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) measures gender-based discrimination in social norms, practices and laws across 160 countries. The SIGI comprises country profiles, a classification of countries and a database; it serves as a research, policy and advocacy tool for the development community and policy makers.
The SIGI covers five dimensions of discriminatory social institutions, spanning major socio-economic areas that affect women’s lives: discriminatory family code, restricted physical integrity, son bias, restricted resources and assets, and restricted civil liberties. The SIGI’s variables quantify discriminatory social institutions such as unequal inheritance rights, early marriage, violence against women, and unequal land and property rights.
In the Social Institutions and Gender Index 2014 Edition , Slovak Republic was not classified in the SIGI due to lack of full dataset. It has lower discrimination in restricted access to resources and assets and higher discrimination in restricted civil liberties. Read the full country profile and access the data here: http://www.genderindex.org/country/slovak-republic
CEDAW was signed on behalf of the former Czechoslovak Socialist Republic in 1980; and the Slovak Republic ratified its commitment in 1993. The Desk for Equal Opportunities and Antidiscrimination (within the Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs and Family) was established in 2003. It performs policy analysis, advocacy, coordination and monitoring of implementation of gender policy. The Coordination Committee on Women’s Issues, which consists of representatives from the government as well as NGO’s and other external actors, is also located within the Ministry and functions as a consultative body.
In 2004, the government adopted the National Strategy for the Prevention and Elimination of Violence Against Women and in Familiesin a bid to prevent the rise of violence. The strategy prioritises greater co-ordination amongst relevant state actors and establishes mechanisms to increase data collection on violence against women.
There remains a number of significant inequalities between men and women in Slovakia’s labour market. Wage Gaps Between Men and Women between men and women is increasing in Slovakia. While in 1996 women’s gross average monthly pay was 74.5% of that of men, by 2002 this had fallen below 72%. Wage differentials are greater at higher income levels. A larger proportion of women than men are clustered in the lower wage brackets. In 2001, 69.1% of total part-time employed were women. In 2003, women made up 27.7% of total employment in the agricultural sector, 30.7% in the industrial sector and 57.8% in the service sector. In 2000, women made up 57% of total employment in the public sector and 35% in the private sector.
Women were given the Women's Women's Suffrage in 1918. Women’s representation of in public functions and in the decision-making processes is currently unequal. After the 2002 elections there were 29 women of the total 150 MPs (19.3%) Subsequently after the departure of several of them to the European Parliament their number dropped to 24, which currently comprises 16%. This is still an increase since 1998, when the proportion of women in the Parliament was 14%.
The education level of women is approximately the same as that of men. In the economically-active population, there has been the same proportion of women with higher education as of men. Women represent more than 60 % of students in liberal arts and natural science schools, more than 50 % in economics-oriented schools, almost 50% in arts-oriented schools, around 40% in agriculture-oriented and architectual schools, and around 25% in technologically-oriented schools. In food industry technology women comprise more than 60 % of students, in electronics less than 10 %.
In Slovakia, the life expectancy at birth is 75 years for both sexes, females have a higher Life expectancy average rate with 79 years, whereas men can expect an average of 71 years. Thus, Gender differences in life expectancy have a higher life expectancy compared to the global average of 66 years for men and 71 years for women. The adult mortality rate (per 1000 adults between 15-59 years) remains high with 130 in contrast to the global average of 176. The maternal mortality ratio is measured with 6 deaths per 100000 live births, which is very low when considering the global average of 260 deaths. The under-5 mortality rate has decreased slightly from 1990 till today, although it was never high, and nowadays it is stated as 7 deaths per 1000 live births, which includes both sexes and is below the global average of 60 deaths. Prevalence of HIV occurs at only 1 case per 1000 adultus aged from 15-49 years, which is far below the average of 8 cases globally. The prevalence of tuberculosis is also lower with 10 cases per 100000 population, than the global average with 201 cases. Tobacco smoking shows a large contrast between the genders; 41,3% of 15+ years old men are regular smokers, but only 20,3% of women smoke regularly. Not such a large contrast however throughout the percentages of obesity; 24,9% of the male adult 20+ population and 24,3% of females are considered to suffer from obesityhttp://www.who.int/gho/countries/svk.pdf.
- CEDAW, Combined Second, Third and Fourth Country Reports: Slovakia (2007)
- ILO, Facts and Figures on Gender Equality in the Slovak Republic
The Women, Business and the Law
Where are laws equal for men and women?
The Women, Business and the Law, 2012 presents indicators based on laws and regulations affecting women’s prospects as entrepreneurs and employees. Several of these indicators draw on the Gender Law Library, a collection of over 2,000 legal provisions impacting women’s economic status. This report does not seek to judge or rank countries, but to provide information to inform discussions about women’s economic rights. Women, Business and the Law provides data covering 6 areas: accessing institutions,using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court. Read more about the methodology.
The FAO Gender and Land Rights Database
The FAO Gender and Land Rights Database contains country level information on social, economic, political and cultural issues related to the gender inequalities embedded in those rights. Disparity on land access is one of the major causes for social and gender inequalities in rural areas, and it jeopardizes, as a consequence, rural food security as well as the wellbeing of individuals and families.
The Database offers information on the 6 following Categories:
- National legal frame
- International treaties and conventions
- Customary law
- Land tenure and related Institutions
- Civil society organizations
- Selected Land Related Statistics