Women and men in India (2012 statistics)
Table of Contents
Women and Men in India, 2012 (14th Issue)
– A publication by the Central Statistics Office under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India.Central Statistics Office, National Statistical Organisation (2012), “Women and Men in India”, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India The highlights:
Population and Vital Statistics
1. As per Census 2011, the population of India is 1210.19 million comprising 586.47 million (48.5%) females and 623.72 million (51.5%) males. Females have a share of 48.1% in the urban population and of 48.6% in the rural population.
2. The average annual exponential growth rate of population during 2001‐2011 is 1.64%. The decadal growth rate during the same period stands at 17.64% which is 3.90% less than that during 1991‐2011.
3. In the age‐group 0‐6 years, the share of female child population is 47.8% of the total child population in that age‐group. Among the States, this share varies between 45.4% (Haryana) and 49.3% (Mizoram).
4. The sex‐ratio (number of women per 1000 men) is 940 in 2011 which shows continued improvement over the sex ratios of 927 in 1991 and 933 in 2001. Among the States, in Census 2011, Kerala has the highest sex‐ratio of 1084 and Haryana has the lowest of 877.
5. The mean age at effective marriage for females stands at 21.0 years in 2010. Among the major States, the highest mean age at effective marriage is 22.6 years for Kerala and the lowest is 20.1 years for Rajasthan.
6. Of the 48.7% never married persons in 2010, women had a share of 43.8% compared with 53.5% for men.
7. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) has come down from 3.2 in 1999 to 2.5 in 2010. The General Fertility Rate (GFR) during the same period has decreased from 103.2 to 83.9. The age‐specific fertility rate is highest (198.6) in the age‐group 20‐24 years followed by 156.8 in the age‐group 20‐24 years and 66.0 in the age‐group 30‐34 years.
8. Historically, the age‐specific mortality rate is the lowest for both males and females in the age‐group 10‐14 years. The mortality rate among females across all ages is 6.7 and that among males is 7.7 for the year 2010.
9. Out of 150.18 million households in the rural areas in 2004‐05, 16.67 million (11.1%) are Female Headed Households. In the urban sector, out of the total of 56.97 million households, 4.85 million (10.9%) are Female Headed.
10. Keeping with the past trend, the share of rural migrant females stood at a high level of 47.7% compared with a meager 5.4% of their male counterparts in 2007‐08. The share of urban female migrants was 45.6% compared with 25.9% for males during the same period.
11. 60.8% of the rural migrant females migrated due to marriage followed by 29.4% due to movement of parents/earning member in 2007‐08. A high 55.7% of the male migrants migrated due to employment reasons followed by 25.2% due to movement of parents/earning member in the same period.
Health and Well Being
12. The female Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) was 49 compared with the male IMR of 46 and the overall IMR of 47 in 2010. Among the major States, the highest overall IMR of 62 was observed in Madhya Pradesh and the lowest of 13 in Kerala in 2010.
13. Life Expectancy at Birth (LEB) has increased more among women compared to men. It is observed that in 2002‐06 LEB for males was 62.6 years compared to 64.2 years for females.
14. 47.0% of the deliveries took place at a health facility in 2007‐08. Share of women who received ante natal care was 76.9% during this period.
15. The Maternal Mortality Ratio has come down from 254 during 2004‐06 to 212 during 2007‐09.
16. 57.4% women in rural areas and 50.9% women in urban areas suffered from anemia during 2005‐06. The share of anemic women across the age‐groups 15‐19 years, 20‐29 years, 30‐39 years and 40‐49 years is centered around 55% during the same period. Among the States, prevalence of anemia was the highest in Assam and Jharkhand, both at 69.5%, and it was the lowest in Kerala at 32.8%.
17. The share of deliveries in hospitals, maternity/ nursing homes, health centers, etc. is 40.8% while the deliveries assisted by doctors, trained ‘dais’, trained midwives, trained nurses, etc. constitute another 48.8%.
18. Over 99% of married women know about any of the methods of contraception.
The awareness about the female sterilization is very high in both urban and rural areas. The rural women are found to be less aware about the traditional methods of contraception (55.5%) compared with the urban women (62.4%).
19. During 2010‐11, the share of unprotected couples was 59.6%. At 26.7%, sterilization was the most preferred method of family planning followed by IUD at 5.7%, oral pill at 4.1% and CC at 3.9%.
20. 2.2% women in India drink alcohol, 10.8% chew paan masala and 1.4% women smoke currently.
Participation in Economy
21. The workforce participation rate of females in rural sector was 26.1 in 2009‐ 10 (NSS 64th Round) while that for males was 54.7. In Urban sector, it was 13.8 for females and 54.3 for males. Among the States/Union Territories, workforce participation rate of females in the rural sector was the highest in Himachal Pradesh at 46.8% and in the urban sector it was the highest in Mizoram at 28.8%.
22. In the rural sector, 55.7% females were self‐employed, 4.4% females had regular wage/salaried employment and 39.9% females were casual labourers compared with 53.5%, 8.5% and 38.0% males in the same categories respectively.
23. A total of 20.4% women were employed in the organized sector in 2010 with 17.9% working in the public sector and 24.5% in the private.
24. The labour force participation rate of women across all age‐groups was 20.8 in rural sector and 12.8 in urban sector compared with 54.8 and 55.6 for men in the rural and urban sectors respectively in 2009‐10 (NSS 64th Round).
25. The unemployment rate for women of all ages was 2.4 compared with 2.0 for men in the rural areas in 2009‐10. It was 7.0 for women and 3.1 for men in urban areas during the same period. Among the States/Union Territories, the highest unemployment rate for women in rural sector was observed in Chandigarh (51.1%) and in the urban sector in Dadra and Nagar Haveli (60.0%) in 2009‐10.
26. Of the total job seekers registered with employed exchanges, women constituted 32.5% in 2009.
27. The female share of total Central Government employment stood at 10.0% in 2009.
28. The share of female employees in the scheduled commercial banks was 15.9% in 2009 which rose slightly to 16.6% in 2010.
29. In 2009‐10, the average wage/salary received by regular wage/salaried employees of age 15‐59 years was Rs. 155.87 per day for females compared with Rs. 249.15 per day for males in rural areas. For urban areas, it was Rs. 308.79 and Rs. 377.16 per day for females and males respectively.
30. In 2010, the number of accounts operated by females in all commercial banks was 153.18 crores compared with 487.37 crore accounts operated by males. The deposit amount was Rs. 517209.74 crore for females and Rs. 1838826.25 crore for males.
31. In 2011‐12, the share of women swarojgaris (self-employed) in the total swarojgaris assisted under the Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgaar Yojna (Golden Jubilee Rural Self Employment Scheme)) stood at 69.4%.
32. The share of women in the person days employed through MGNREGA stood at 48.3% in 2011‐12 (all districts with rural areas).
33. According to the pilot Time Use Survey conducted in 18,620 households spread over six selected States, namely, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and Meghalaya during the period June 1998 to July 1999, women spent about 2.1 hours per day on cooking food and about 1.1 hours on cleaning the households and utensils. Men’s participation in these activities was nominal. Taking care of children was one of the major responsibilities of women, as they spent about 3.16 hours per week on these activities as compared to only 0.32 hours by males.
Literacy and Education
34. As per Census 2011, 74.0% of the population is literate comprising 65.5% females and2.1% males. The incremental increase over Census 2001 of 11.8% for females is higher than 6.8% for males.
35. Among the States/Union Territories, the female literacy rate is the highest in Kerala at 92.0% followed by Mizoram at 89.4%. The highest male literacy rate is observed in Lakshadweep at 96.1% followed by Kerala at 96.0% as per Census 2011.
36. As per NSS 64th Round, 2007‐08, of the currently attending students aged 5‐ 29 years, 69.2% females in primary schools, 65.6% females in the middle schools and 56.8% females in secondary and higher secondary schools were attending Government schools. The share of males is across the board lower at 65.4%, 64.0% and 55.6% in the respective categories.
37. Share of females getting free education/ exemption from tuition fee and receiving different types of incentives is higher than that for males in all the three levels of school education. However, the average annual expenditure for females is lower than that of males.
38. The main reasons of females never attending school are ‘expensive cost of education’, ‘not interested in studies’, ‘education is not considered necessary’ and ‘required for household work’.
39. The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) for females at the primary level stood at 115.39 compared with 115.55 for males in 2009‐10 indicating parity in GER. At the middle classes level, the GER for females was 78.30 while that for males was 84.53.
40. The Gross Attendance Ratio for females in the classes I‐V in rural areas was 103 compared with 106 for males in 2007‐08 (NSS 64th Round). The Net Attendance Ratio was observed to be 83 and 86 for females and males respectively in the rural areas in the classes I‐V.
41. The Drop‐out Rates were observed to be 27.25 and 30.25 for females and males respectively in the classes I‐V in 2009‐10. These were 44.39 and 40.59 in classes I‐VIII and 51.97 and 53.38 in classes I‐X for females and males respectively.
Participation in Decision Making
42. In 2012, women occupied only 8 out of 74 Ministerial positions in the Central Council of Ministers. There were 2 women judges out of 26 judges in the Supreme Court and there were only 54 women judges out of 634 judges in different High Courts.
43. According to National Family Health Survey–III (2005‐06) in the rural sector currently married women take 26% decisions regarding obtaining health care for herself and 7.6% in case of purchasing major household items. 10% decisions are taken by females in respect of visiting their family or relatives. For urban areas, these figures are 29.7 %, 10.4 % and 12.2 % respectively.
44. In the age group of 15‐19 years, 46% of women are not involved in any kind of decision making. In the rural sector, 23.4 % females are not involved in any decision‐ making while, in the urban sector, only 13.9 % of urban resident women are not involved in any decision making. It is found that 32.7% illiterate women, 21.6% unemployed women are not involved in any decision making. For the country as a whole, 59.6% have access to money.
Crime against Women
45. Cruelty by husband and relatives continues to occupy the highest share (43.4%) among the crimes committed against women in 2011 followed by molestation (18.8%). 15.6% cases are that of kidnapping and abduction, 10.6% of rape, 3.8% of dowry deaths and 3.7% of sexual harassment.
46. 10.4% cases of cruelty by husband and relatives underwent trial by the Courts of Law in 2011 and conviction was done in 8.3% cases. The highest conviction rate of 16.5% was observed for the crime ‘importation of girls’ and the lowest of 4.0% for ‘indecent representation of women’.
47. Out of a total 24270 victims, there were 875 victims who were less than 10 years of age, 1707 in the age‐group 10‐14 years, 4646 in the age‐group 14‐18 years, 13264 in the age‐group 18‐30 years, 3637 in the age‐group of 30‐50 years and 141 in the age‐group greater than 50 years.
48. In 2011, of the total Juvenile Delinquency, 5.8% were girls. Also, the rate of incidence of the crime per lakh population was 2.1.
India in International Arena
49. India ranks 134 in 2011 among 187 countries in terms of the UNDP Human Development Index (HDI) and Gender Inequality Index (GII).