Global Care Chain
Table of Contents
Concept & Definition
The term ‘global care chain’ was first used by Arlie Hochschild to refer to “a series of personal links between people across the globe based on the paid or unpaid work of caring”.Hochschild, A. R. (2000) “Global Care Chains and Emotional Surplus Value” in Hutton, W. and Giddens, A. (eds) On The Edge: Living with Global Capitalism, London: Jonathan Cape, p. 131 This concept rephrases an earlier idea introduced by Rhacel Salazar Parrenas, which she called the international division of reproductive labor or the international transfer of caretaking.Rhacel Parrenas, “Migrant Filipina Domestic Workers and the International Division of Reproductive Labor,” Gender and Society 14:4 (August 2000), 560-580Rhacel Parrenas, “The Global Servants: Filipina (Im)Migrant Domestic Workers in Rome and Los Angeles,” Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Ethnic Studies, UC Berkeley (1998). Hochschild first came across this idea when she read the dissertation of Parrenas, as she had been a member of her dissertation committee at UC Berkeley.
In this pioneering work, a global care chain was seen to typically involve: “An older daughter from a poor family who cares for her siblings while her mother works as a nanny caring for the children of a migrating nanny who, in turn, cares for the child of a family in a rich country.”
Thus, the global care chain is begun by a woman in a rich, developed country who, having entered the labour force, is unable to fulfil her “domestic duties”. As Parrenas describes in her Gender and Society article, published in 2000, “… the migration and entrance into domestic work of Filipino women constitutes an international division of reproductive labor. This division of labor, which I name the international transfer of caretaking, refers to the three-tier transfer of reproductive labor among women in sending and receiving countries of migration. While class-privileged women purchase the low-wage services of migrant Filipina domestic workers, migrant Filipina domestic workers simultaneously purchase the even lower-wage services of poorer women left behind in the Philippines. In other words, migrant Filipina domestic workers hire poorer women in the Philippines to perform the reproductive labor that they are performing for wealthier women in receiving nations.” The woman therefore employs another woman in order to take on the domestic workload. This other woman tends to be from a poorer household and is, more and more frequently, an international migrant.
This other woman also, in most cases, has dependent children in her home destination and therefore solicits the help of another woman, from an even poorer background, to substitute for her in her domestic duties. Gradually the chain continues and, as we go down it, the value ascribed to the labour decreases and often becomes unpaid at the end of the chain. Yeates, Nicola (2005), “Global Care Chains: a critical introduction”, in Global Migration Perspectives, no. 44, p. 2
Many analysts speak of household internationalisation whereby this trade in domestic labour creates transnational networks between various households and families across the globe.
Typically receiving countries include the Gender Equality in the Gender Equality in the United States of America of America of America, Belgium , France , Germany , Greece , Italy , Luxembourg , Spain and Switzerland . The principal sending country is seen to be the Gender Equality in the Gender Equality in the Philippines. Others include Sri Lanka , Mexico and Central America to the US, Poland , Albania and Bulgaria to Greece, The the Dominican Republic , and Peru and Morocco to Spain.
The global care chain is a characteristic of an increasingly globalised world in which demand for migrant workers in developed countries as well as the supply of migrants from less developed countries continues to grow.
The underlying causes of this phenomenon include:
- The entry of women into the labour force in the developed world, resulting in a reduced ability to attend to children and the elderly
- A lack of family-friendly policies and childcare facilities at places of work makes the demand for at home childcarers higher
- Changes in family structure
- The “care deficit”: A shortage of public care services in developed countries
- Increasing longevity and size of the elderly population in developed countries
- Growing prosperity in richer countries. Yeates, Nicola (2005), “Global Care Chains: a critical introduction”, in Global Migration Perspectives, no. 44, p. 4
International domestic workers are presented with various personal and social benefits in developed countries. Their wages can be sent back in remittances, not only allowing for the improved opportunities for children left behind, but also often considerably contributing to national economic development. Indeed, for many countries, such as the Philippines, the income generated from overseas workers is key to national development.
Nevertheless, the phenomenon of the global care chain also has a potential destabilising effect on the family. Having one parent, or in many cases both, living abroad can have a detrimental effect on the well-being of children left behind although the improved education of children left behind, brought about by remittance gains, has been highlighted. Migration therefore seldom allows for a stable, united family. Scholars often refer to Filipino families as “transnationally-split” for example,For example, Piper, Nicola (2005), “Gender and Migration”, Global Commission on International Migration and underline the increased probability of negative effects on children left behind in the case of an absentee mother.
The Feminisation of Migration
The international trade in domestic labour must be placed in the context of increased international migration in general and, particularly, of the feminisation of international migration. Now, as women migrate independently and, in many cases, become a household’s principal income earner, scholars talk about the feminisation of migration.For example, Castles & Miller (2003), The Age of Migration, p.67 Domestic work is one of the largest sectors driving international female labour migration today United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). (2006). UNFPA State of World Population 2006, a Passage to Hope: Women and International Migration. New York. p.25 .