Gender Equality in Togo

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Togo
flag_Togo.png
Flag of Togo
Population (in Mil.) 6.64
Gross Domestic Product (In USD Billions - WB) 3.92
Sex Ratio (m/f) 0.98
Life Expectancy Ratio (f/m) 1.036363636
Fertility Rate 4.69
Estimated Earned Income (f/m)
Tertiary Enrolment Ratio (f/m) 5.9
Women in Parliament (in %) 15.4
INDICES
Human Development Index 159/187
Social Institutions and Gender Index 67/86
Gender Inequality Index 159/186
Gender Equity Index 141/168
Women’s Economic Opportunity Index 122/128
Global Gender Gap Index /68
More information on variables

Social Institutions

Togo gained independence from France in 1960; French remains the official language.[1]For many years, the country was under a dictatorial regime that seriously violated the human rights of all citizens.[2] Relatively free and fair elections were held in 2007, and despite an alleged attempted coup in early 2009, the country remains fairly stable. Classed as a low-income country by the World Bank ,[3] Togo is one of the poorest countries in West Africa, with an economy heavily reliant on commercial and subsistence agriculture.[4] The country is home to 40 different ethnic groups, and there are sometimes tensions between them.[5]

The condition of women in Togo has improved since the early 2000s, but progress has been stalled by the continuing influence of discriminatory customary practices and by the fact that Togo remains one of the poorest countries in the region.[6] There is still a widespread lack of awareness among all sections of the population of what legal rights women have.[7] In 2001, the government of Togo established an interministerial commission to assess the extent to which women’s rights were being respected in the country.[8] The commission conducted a national survey and put forward amendments to the Personal and Family Code to remove clauses discriminating against women in regard to marriage and inheritance.[9] As of 2010, it does not appear that any changes to the Personal and Family Code have actually been made. A General Directorate for the Advancement of Women has existed since 1977, and there is also a Ministry of Social Affairs, the Advancement of Women, and Child Protection.[10] Article 2 of the 1992 Constitution provides for equal rights for women and men.[11] Togo ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women in 1983, but has not yet ratified the Optional Protocol on violence against women.[12] The country also ratified the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa in 2005.[13] The country’s Human Development Index (HDI) ranking is 0.435, placing it in 162nd place out of a total of 187 countries.[14] The Gender Inequality Index score is 0.602 that places country at 24 out of 146 countries.[15] Togo is not ranked under the 2011 Global Gender Gap Index.[16]

Discriminatory Family Code

The Personal and Family Code itself contains clauses that discriminate against women, such as unequal minimum ages for marriage for males and females.[17] As of 2006, this the Personal and Family Code was under revision, but there is no evidence to indicate that new legislation has yet been passed. In general, regardless of the Code, matters relating to marriage, divorce and inheritance are governed by customary law, which also discriminates against women.[18] Under the Personal and Family Code, the minimum age for marriage is 17 years for women and 20 years for men, and both spouses must give their free consent.[19] This law is often ignored in rural areas, where customary early marriage before the age of 17 years is still common and sometimes forced (such marriages are not recognised by the law).[20] The data from Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey indicates that 16.2% of girls between 15 and 19 years were married or in union in 2006.[21] Polygamy is legal in Togo, although both the (first) wife and the husband must express their consent that the marriage will be polygamous during the wedding ceremony.[22] In theory, all wives within a polygynous marriage should be treated equally, although in practice, household resources may not be distributed equally among wives, and there are often conflicts over inheritance.[23] In 1998 (the last year for which reliable data is available), 42.8% of women reported that they were in polygynous marriages.[24] This included 22.2% of married girls aged 15-19, indicating some correlation between polygamous and early marriage.[25] The practice is more common in rural areas than in towns, and may be linked to low levels of education: 49.1% of women in polygamous marriages had no education, compared to 34% who had secondary education.[26] According to Togo’s Personal and Family Code, parents share parental authority and have equal rights and obligations in relation to raising their children.[27] In practice, tradition dictates that husbands are the heads of families and the sole holders of parental authority.[28] This gives them the authority to make decisions without asking their wives’ opinion or consent.[29] Under current legislation, Togolese women cannot pass Togolese citizenship onto their children, in the event that their father is of a different nationality.[30] A new children’s legal code that would have granted women the right to pass on Togolese citizenship to their children was being considered by lawmakers as of 2006, but it is unclear whether this code has been adopted.[31] The Personal and Family Code states that Togolese women can file for divorce under the same conditions as men.[32] In urban areas, legal marriages are terminated in court.[33] Divorced mothers retain temporary custody of their children up to the age of seven, at which time the courts may award final custody to either parent, according to the children’s best interests.[34] In rural areas where customary marriages dominate, repudiation (whereby a husband unilaterally divorces his wife without warning, and demands that she leaves the family home) is more common than divorce, and women have no rights to maintenance or child support.[35] Repudiated women lose custody of their children and are forced to return to their parents’ home, leaving all their possessions behind.[36] Under civil law, women can inherit land and other property, but Togolese customary law is very unfavourable to women in the matter of inheritance.[37] Women are not entitled to inherit from their husbands or fathers, but can hold property in usufruct.[38] Widows can inherit property only if their husbands explicitly renounced customary law while still alive: in practice, this is an extremely difficult thing to do.[39] In some regions, a wife is considered to be her husband’s property, and so is inherited along with the rest of his possessions by his family.[40] Widowhood rituals such as the obligation to remain barefoot are still practiced in Togo: refusal to follow them can result in ostracism and denial of access to matrimonial property.[41]

Restricted Physical Integrity

Women’s physical integrity is not sufficiently protected by the law in Togo and violence against women is a serious problem. To date, there is no specific legislation to address domestic violence.[42] Reliable data as to prevalence rates is unavailable. Most women are reluctant to report abuse (due to shame), and are unaware of the legal mechanisms available to protect them.[43] In addition, the police rarely intervene in domestic matters, and when they are approached, often just send the woman back home.[44] Women’s rights NGOs are active in raising awareness of the issue, and informing women of their rights.[45] Rape is punishable by five to ten years in prison, but spousal rape is not legally recognised.[46] As Togolese society attaches a strong stigma to rape victims, victims seldom press charges.[47] When they do, the authorities do seem willing to investigate and pursue charges.[48] Sexual harassment has been prohibited by a presidential decree, but is still frequent in the workplace: victims rarely report it and perpetrators usually go unpunished.[49] In 1998, the government passed a law banning female genital mutilation (FGM),[50] but the practice still occurs within a few ethnic groups, mainly in the central and savannah regions of the country.[51] Up-to-date prevalence rates from reliable data sources are not available, however UNICEF estimates that 6% of women have undergone the procedure.[52] All persons who perform FGM face punishments of between two months and five years imprisonment and a fine, although as FGM is typically performed in remote rural areas, the law is seldom enforced.[53] Anyone who witnesses FGM and does not alert the authorities can be convicted as an accessory.[54] NGOs and the government continue to work together to challenge the practice, using education campaigns and providing alternative income activities for FGM practitioners.[55] Trafficking in children is illegal in Togo, but there is no law to cover trafficking in adults.[56] The country is a source, transit and destination country for male and female children for the purposes of forced labour, and of older girls and women for prostitution.[57] As in other parts of West Africa, internal child trafficking for the purposes of forced labour is a serious problem, but one which receives considerable attention from both the government and national and international NGOs.[58] Women in Togo have the right to use contraception and access information about contraceptive methods.[59] Reproductive health services are available from state-run clinics.[60] Up-to-date reliable data is not available, but the US Department of State estimates that 11% of women use contraception regularly.[61] In rural areas in particular, access to reproductive health services is poor, due to lack of provision, but also to the lack of decision-making power that many women have within their families, and hostility towards contraceptive use on the part of male partners.[62] As cited in the 2006 report to the CEDAW Committee, reluctance of health care practitioners to provide permanent sterilisation or long-term contraception to women who have not had any children clearly reinforces the expectation that Togolese women should be mothers.[63] Abortion is legal in cases of rape or incest, if the foetus is impaired, or to save the pregnant woman’s life.[64]

Son Bias

Estimates from 2010 indicate that infant mortality rates are higher for boys than girls.[65] 84% of young men aged 15-24 are considered by UNICEF to be literate, compared to 64% of young women in the same age range.[66] This reflects acceptance of the idea that boys’ education should be prioritised over girls’, something which is even included in the country’s Family Code (article 101).[67] In regard to son preference, this does not seem to be an issue as far as early childhood care is concerned, but it clearly is in regard to access to education. The male/female sex ratio for the total population in 2012 is 0.98.[68] There is no evidence to suggest that Togo is a country of concern in relation to missing women.

Restricted Resources and Entitlements

Legally, there are no restrictions on women in regard to owning property.[69] But under virtually all customary legal regimes, women do not have the right to own land.[70] Rather, women are only able to access land on a usufruct basis, with permission from their husband or natal family.[71] In the event of repudiation or divorce, women may be left in a precarious situation without any means of cultivating food crops.[72] Women’s access to property other than land depends on the system under which they were married.[73] Civil law provides for the division of property, and women can therefore own and manage their possessions independently.[74] Under the more common community of property regime, husbands are the legal administrators of the couple’s property, although they cannot sell possessions without their wives’ consent.[75] In principle, women and men have the same access to bank loans, but women typically earn lower wages and are often unable to provide the guarantees requested by banks.[76] Moreover, women married under the community of property regime are prohibited from providing such guarantees without their husbands’ consent.[77] In rural areas in particular, women are now able to access credit through tontine systems (local credit and savings circles found across the region), credit unions, and micro finance programmes.[78] Businesswomen’s networks have also emerged, and these have also acted as means for women entrepreneurs to access credit.[79]

Restricted Civil Liberties

Togolese women face some restrictions on their freedom of movement. Under Togolese law, a married couple should decide together where they will live, but where there is no agreement, the husband’s decision is final.[80] This limits the right of women to move for work, for instance. Freedom of movement for the entire population is restricted in some areas, where security checkpoints are in place.[81]

Freedom of expression is guaranteed by law, but in practice, is restricted in Togo.[82]Amnesty International reports that in 2009, media outlets were pressured into not voicing criticism of the government, following an attempted coup in April.[83] That said, there is a lively local media scene, and some newspapers are openly critical of the government.[84] The 2004 report to the CEDAW Committee noted that women are underrepresented in the media at all levels.[85] In the past, demonstrations were violently suppressed, denying Togolese citizens their right to freedom of assembly and association, although since 2005, demonstrations have been held that have not resulted in police suppression.[86] Women have equal rights with men to vote and to participate in political life, but in practice, there are few women in positions of leadership, either in formal politics or civil society.[87] Nine of the country’s 81 MPs are women, as are four members of the 28-member cabinet.[88] In 2009 Victoire Dogbe Tomegah became the first woman to serve as presidential chief of staff.[89] At the community level, women are underrepresented on the grassroots development committees that operate in most villages.[90] Women’s rights NGOs provide legal and practical support to women affected by violence and other women’s rights issues, promote women’s and girls’ leadership, raise awareness about the legal protection that women are entitled to under Togo’s civil code, and have campaigned actively on issues such as FGM and domestic violence.[91] In Togo, pregnant women are entitled to 14 weeks paid maternity leave, and gender discrimination in regard to pay is illegal under the Labour Code.[92] The World Bank considers 63% of Togolese women to be economically active, but most women work in the informal sector, meaning they are not protected by employment legislation.[93] In Togo, a husband has the legal right to bar his wife from working, or choose to receive her earnings.[94] Same-sex relationships are illegal in Togo for women and men.[95]


References

  1. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) World Factbook: Togo, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/to.html (accessed 22 November 2010)
  2. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) World Factbook: Togo, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/to.html (accessed 22 November 2010)
  3. World Bank (n.d.) Data: Togo, http://data.worldbank.org/country/togo (accessed 22 November 2010)
  4. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) World Factbook: Togo, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/to.html (accessed 22 November 2010); Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.16
  5. Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Togo, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7933 (accessed 22 November 2010)
  6. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010) p.44
  7. Lutheran World Federation (2006), Report on the Status of Women in Togo, Lutheran World Federation, Geneva. http://www.lutheranworld.org/What_We_Do/OIahr/UN_Bodies/CEDAW34-Togo.pdf (accessed 22 November 2010), p.3
  8. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.36
  9. CEDAW (2006) ‘Responses to the list of issues and questions for consideration of the combined fourth and fifth periodic report: Togo’, CEDAW/C/TGO/Q/1-5/Add.1, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), pp.10, 15
  10. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.36
  11. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.33
  12. Africa for Women’s Rights (2009) Map / Carte ratifications http://www.africa4womensrights.org/post/2009/01/23/Carte-des-ratifications (accessed 22 November 2010)
  13. African Union (2010) ‘List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa’ (as of 27 August 2010). http://www.africa-union.org/root/au/Documents/Treaties/List/Protocol%20on%20the%20Rights%20of%20Women.pdf (accessed 15 October 2010)
  14. United Nations Development Programme (2011) Human Development Report 2011, available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf, accessed 29 February 2012.p.129
  15. United Nations Development Programme (2011) Human Development Report 2011, available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf, accessed 29 February 2012.p.141
  16. World Economic Forum (2011) The Global Gender Gap Report 2011, available at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2011.pdf, accessed 2 March 2012.
  17. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.34-35
  18. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.34-35; Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Togo, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7933 (accessed 22 November 2010)
  19. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), pp.16, 125
  20. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.125
  21. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Togo (2006), available at http://www.childinfo.org/files/MICS3_Togo_FinalReport_2006_Fr.pdf, accessed 19 Macrh 2012
  22. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), pp.16, 46, 125; CEDAW (2006) ‘Responses to the list of issues and questions for consideration of the combined fourth and fifth periodic report: Togo’, CEDAW/C/TGO/Q/1-5/Add.1, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.38
  23. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.46
  24. UNICEF (2005a) ‘Early marriage: a harmful traditional practice. A statistical exploration’, UNICEF, New York., p.38
  25. UNICEF (2005a) ‘Early marriage: a harmful traditional practice. A statistical exploration’, UNICEF, New York, p.32
  26. UNICEF (2005a) ‘Early marriage: a harmful traditional practice. A statistical exploration’, UNICEF, New York., p.38 (again, figures from 1998 DHS)
  27. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010) pp.40, 44
  28. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.42
  29. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010) p.42
  30. CEDAW (2006) ‘Responses to the list of issues and questions for consideration of the combined fourth and fifth periodic report: Togo’, CEDAW/C/TGO/Q/1-5/Add.1, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.22
  31. CEDAW (2006) ‘Responses to the list of issues and questions for consideration of the combined fourth and fifth periodic report: Togo’, CEDAW/C/TGO/Q/1-5/Add.1, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.22
  32. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), pp.40, 127
  33. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.46
  34. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.128
  35. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Togo’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135981.htm (accessed 22 November 2010); Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.46
  36. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.46
  37. Lutheran World Federation (2006), Report on the Status of Women in Togo, Lutheran World Federation, Geneva. http://www.lutheranworld.org/What_We_Do/OIahr/UN_Bodies/CEDAW34-Togo.pdf (accessed 22 November 2010), p.3
  38. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Togo’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135981.htm (accessed 22 November 2010); Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), pp.39, 43
  39. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), pp.43, 129
  40. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.123
  41. Lutheran World Federation (2006), Report on the Status of Women in Togo, Lutheran World Federation, Geneva. http://www.lutheranworld.org/What_We_Do/OIahr/UN_Bodies/CEDAW34-Togo.pdf (accessed 22 November 2010), p.2; Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.130
  42. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Togo’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135981.htm (accessed 22 November 2010)
  43. Lutheran World Federation (2006), Report on the Status of Women in Togo, Lutheran World Federation, Geneva. http://www.lutheranworld.org/What_We_Do/OIahr/UN_Bodies/CEDAW34-Togo.pdf (accessed 22 November 2010), p.2; US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Togo’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135981.htm (accessed 22 November 2010)
  44. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Togo’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135981.htm (accessed 22 November 2010); Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (2004), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Togo, Combined Initial, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on States Parties, CEDAW/C/TGO/1-5, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws34.htm (accessed 22 November 2010), p.45
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The Africa for Women's Rights Campaign

Africa4womensrights.png

Key facts

  • CEDAW: ratified in 1983
  • CEDAW Protocol: not signed
  • Maputo Protocol: ratified in 2005

The Campaign

On 8 March 2009 the "Africa for Women's Rights" Campaign was launched at the initiative of the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), in collaboration with fove non-governmental regional organisations: the African Center for Democracy and Human Rights Studies(ACDHRS), Femmes Africa Solidarité (FAS), Women’s Aid Collective (WACOL), Women in Law and Development in Africa (WILDAF) and Women and Law in Southern Africa (WLSA). These organisations make up the Steering Committee responsible for the coordination of the Campaign.

The Campaign aims to put an end to discrimination and violence against women in Africa, calling on states to ratify international and regional instruments protecting women's rights, to repeal all discriminatory laws, to adopt laws protecting the rights of women and to take all necessary measures to wensure their effective implementation.

Country Focus: Togo

Although Togo ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1983 and the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (Maputo Protocol) in 2005, it has not ratified the Optional Protocol to CEDAW.

The Coalition of the Campaign is particularly concerned by the following continued violations of women’s rights in Togo: the persistence of discriminatory laws; harmful traditional practices, including forced and early marriages and feminine genital mutilation; limited access property, education, employment and health.

Read more

Sources

  • Focal Points: LTDH, WILDAF-Togo
  • CEDAW Committee Recommendations, February 2006
  • Togo, Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV: Report on core indicators, 2008
  • UNHCR
  • UNICEF

The Women, Business and the Law

Where are laws equal for men and women? 

The Women, Business and the Law report presents indicators based on laws and regulations affecting women's prospects as entrepreneurs and employees. Several of these indicators draw on the Gender Law Library, a collection of over 2,000 legal provisions impacting women's economic status. This report does not seek to judge or rank countries, but to provide information to inform discussions about women’s economic rights. Women, Business and the Law provides data covering 6 areas: accessing institutions,using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court. Read more about the methodology.

For detailed information on Togo, please visit the Women, Business and
the Law Togo
page.

Sources


Article Information
Wikiprogress Wikichild Wikigender University Wikiprogress.Stat ProgBlog Latin America Network African Network eFrame