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Condoleezza Rice born November 14, 1954 is an American professor, politican, diplomat and author. She was the 66th[[Image:Condoleezza Rice.jpg|thumb|right|Condoleezza Rice.jpg]] [[Secretary of State|United States Secretary of State]].<br>
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Condoleezza Rice born November 14, 1954 is an American professor, politican, diplomat and author. She was the 66th[[Image:Condoleezza Rice.jpg|thumb|right]] [[Secretary of State|United States Secretary of State]].
  
&nbsp;Rice was [[Bush|President Bush's]] National Security Advisor during his first term.She was also a professor of political science at Stanford University, as well as Provost from 1993-1999. Rice also served as the Soviet and East European Affairs Advisor to President George H.W. Bush during the dissolution of the Soviet Union and German reunification.<ref>"Board of Directors". Millennium Challenge Corporation. Archived from the original on 2008-06-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20080607012010/http://www.mcc.gov/about/boardofdirectors/index.php. Retrieved January 21, 2009. "The Secretary of State is the Chair of the Board..."</ref>  
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Rice was [[Bush|President Bush's]] National Security Advisor during his first term.She was also a professor of political science at Stanford University, as well as Provost from 1993-1999. Rice also served as the Soviet and East European Affairs Advisor to President George H.W. Bush during the dissolution of the Soviet Union and German reunification.<ref>"Board of Directors". Millennium Challenge Corporation. Archived from the original on 2008-06-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20080607012010/http://www.mcc.gov/about/boardofdirectors/index.php. Retrieved January 21, 2009. "The Secretary of State is the Chair of the Board..."</ref>
  
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== Early/ Personal Life<br> ==
  
== Early/ Personal Life<br> ==
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Condoleezza Rice was born in Birmingham, Alabama, and grew up in the neighborhood of Titusville. She is the only child of Presbyterian minister Reverend John Wesley Rice, Jr., and wife, Angelena Ray.<ref>"Condoleezza Rice". Encyclopedia of World Biography. http://www.notablebiographies.com/news/Ow-Sh/Rice-Condoleezza.html. Retrieved 2008-10-26.</ref><br>
  
Condoleezza Rice was born in Birmingham, Alabama, and grew up in the neighborhood of Titusville. She is the only child of Presbyterian minister Reverend John Wesley Rice, Jr., and wife, Angelena Ray.<ref>"Condoleezza Rice". Encyclopedia of World Biography. http://www.notablebiographies.com/news/Ow-Sh/Rice-Condoleezza.html. Retrieved 2008-10-26.</ref><br>  
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At the age of three, Rice started learning French, music, figure skating and ballet. At 15, she began classes with the idea of becoming a concert pianist. She decided on not becoming a concert pianist, when she realized that she was not good enough for a full time career. <ref>Tommasini, Anthony (2006-04-09). "Condoleezza Rice on Piano". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/09/arts/music/09tomm.html?_r=1. Retrieved 2008-11-03.</ref><br>
  
At the age of three, Rice started learning French, music, figure skating and ballet. At 15, she began classes with the idea of becoming a concert pianist. She decided on not becoming a concert pianist, when she realized that she was not good enough for a full time career. <ref>Tommasini, Anthony (2006-04-09). "Condoleezza Rice on Piano". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/09/arts/music/09tomm.html?_r=1. Retrieved 2008-11-03.</ref><br>  
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For high school, Rice St. Mary's Academy in Cherry Hills, Colorado, she graduated in 1970. <br>
  
For high school, Rice St. Mary's Academy in Cherry Hills, Colorado, she graduated in 1970. <br>  
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In 1974, at age 19, Rice earned her BA degree in political science, Phi Beta Kappa, from the University of Denver. In 1975, she obtained her Master's Degree in political science from the University of Notre Dame. She first worked in the State Department in 1977, during the Carter administration, as an intern in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. In 1981, at the age of 26, she received her PhD degree in Political Science from the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver. Her dissertation, along with some of her earlier publications, centered on military policy and politics in the former state of Czechoslovakia.<ref>The Politics of Client Command: Party-Military Relations in Czechoslovakia, 1948–1975.. PhD dissertation. University of Denver. http://130.253.4.23/record=b2587932~S3.</ref><br>Rice was a Democrat until 1982 when she changed her political affiliation to Republican after growing averse to former President Jimmy Carter's foreign policy.<ref>"The Republicans Showcase a Rising Star; Foreign Policy Fueled Rice's Party Switch and Her Climb to Prominence". Washington Post. http://www.highbeam.com/The+Washington+Post/publications.aspx?date=20000801&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;pageNumber=2. Retrieved 2009-04-21.</ref><br>
  
In 1974, at age 19, Rice earned her BA degree in political science, Phi Beta Kappa, from the University of Denver. In 1975, she obtained her Master's Degree in political science from the University of Notre Dame. She first worked in the State Department in 1977, during the Carter administration, as an intern in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. In 1981, at the age of 26, she received her PhD degree in Political Science from the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver. Her dissertation, along with some of her earlier publications, centered on military policy and politics in the former state of Czechoslovakia.<ref>The Politics of Client Command: Party-Military Relations in Czechoslovakia, 1948–1975.. PhD dissertation. University of Denver. http://130.253.4.23/record=b2587932~S3.</ref><br>Rice was a Democrat until 1982 when she changed her political affiliation to Republican after growing averse to former President Jimmy Carter's foreign policy.<ref>"The Republicans Showcase a Rising Star; Foreign Policy Fueled Rice's Party Switch and Her Climb to Prominence". Washington Post. http://www.highbeam.com/The+Washington+Post/publications.aspx?date=20000801&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;pageNumber=2. Retrieved 2009-04-21.</ref><br>
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Rice has never married and has no children.  
  
Rice has never married and has no children. <br>
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== National Security Advisor (2001–2005)<br> ==
 
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== National Security Advisor (2001–2005)<br> ==
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On December 17, 2000, Rice was named as National Security Advisor and stepped down from her position at Stanford. She was the first woman to occupy the post. Rice earned the nickname of "Warrior Princess," reflecting strong nerve and delicate manners.<ref>#1 Condoleezza Rice". The Most Powerful Women. Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2005/11/MTNG.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03.</ref>  
 
On December 17, 2000, Rice was named as National Security Advisor and stepped down from her position at Stanford. She was the first woman to occupy the post. Rice earned the nickname of "Warrior Princess," reflecting strong nerve and delicate manners.<ref>#1 Condoleezza Rice". The Most Powerful Women. Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2005/11/MTNG.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03.</ref>  
  
During the summer of 2001, Rice met with CIA Director George Tenet to discuss the possibilities and prevention of terrorist [[Image:Secretary of State.jpg|thumb|right|Secretary of State.jpg]]attacks on American targets. Notably, on July 10, 2001, Rice met with Tenet in what he referred to as an "emergency meeting"<ref>Shenon, Philip; Mark Mazzetti (2006-10-02). "Records Show Tenet Briefed Rice on Al Qaeda Threat". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/02/washington/03ricecnd.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03.</ref>  
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During the summer of 2001, Rice met with CIA Director George Tenet to discuss the possibilities and prevention of terrorist [[Image:Secretary of State.jpg|thumb|right]]attacks on American targets. Notably, on July 10, 2001, Rice met with Tenet in what he referred to as an "emergency meeting"<ref>Shenon, Philip; Mark Mazzetti (2006-10-02). "Records Show Tenet Briefed Rice on Al Qaeda Threat". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/02/washington/03ricecnd.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03.</ref>  
  
In March 2004, Rice declined to testify before the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the 9/11 Commission). The White House claimed executive privilege under constitutional separation of powers and cited past tradition. Under pressure, Bush agreed to allow her to testify so long as it did not create a precedent of presidential staff being required to appear before United States Congress when so requested. Her appearance before the commission on April 8, 2004, was accepted by the Bush administration in part because she was not appearing directly before Congress. She thus became the first sitting National Security Advisor to testify on matters of policy.<br><br>  
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In March 2004, Rice declined to testify before the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the 9/11 Commission). The White House claimed executive privilege under constitutional separation of powers and cited past tradition. Under pressure, Bush agreed to allow her to testify so long as it did not create a precedent of presidential staff being required to appear before United States Congress when so requested. Her appearance before the commission on April 8, 2004, was accepted by the Bush administration in part because she was not appearing directly before Congress. She thus became the first sitting National Security Advisor to testify on matters of policy.<br>
  
Rice was a proponent of the 2003 invasion of After Iraq delivered its declaration of weapons of mass destruction to the United Nations on December 8, 2002, Rice wrote an editorial for The New York Times entitled "Why We Know Iraq Is Lying".<ref>Rice, Condoleezza (2003-01-23). "Why We Know Iraq Is Lying". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E01E5DF1E30F930A15752C0A9659C8B63. Retrieved 2008-11-03.</ref>  
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Rice was a proponent of the 2003 invasion of After Iraq delivered its declaration of weapons of mass destruction to the United Nations on December 8, 2002, Rice wrote an editorial for The New York Times entitled ''"Why We Know Iraq Is Lying".''<ref>Rice, Condoleezza (2003-01-23). "Why We Know Iraq Is Lying". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E01E5DF1E30F930A15752C0A9659C8B63. Retrieved 2008-11-03.</ref><br>
  
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== Secretary of State (2005–2009)<br> ==
  
== Secretary of State (2005–2009)<br>  ==
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[[Image:Rice signing into office.jpg|thumb|left]]On November 16, 2004, Bush nominated Rice to be Secretary of State. On January 26, 2005, the Senate confirmed her nomination by a vote of 85-13. The negative votes, the most cast against any nomination for Secretary of State since 1825, came from Senators who, according to Senator Barbara Boxer, wanted ''"to hold Dr. Rice and the Bush administration accountable for their failures in Iraq and in the war on terrorism." ''Their reasoning was that Rice had acted irresponsibly in equating Hussein's regime with Islamist terrorism and some could not accept her previous record. Senator Robert Byrd voted against Rice’s appointment, indicating that she ''"has asserted that the President holds far more of the war power than the Constitution grants him."''<ref>Robert Byrd (2005-01-25). "Standing for the Founding Principles of the Republic: Voting No on the Nomination of Dr. Rice as Secretary of State". Press release. http://byrd.senate.gov/speeches/byrd_speeches_2005_january/byrd_speeches_2005_january_lis/byrd_speeches_2005_january_lis_0.html. Retrieved 2008-11-04.</ref>
 
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[[Image:Rice signing into office.jpg|thumb|left|Rice signing into office.jpg]]On November 16, 2004, Bush nominated Rice to be Secretary of State. On January 26, 2005, the Senate confirmed her nomination by a vote of 85-13. The negative votes, the most cast against any nomination for Secretary of State since 1825, came from Senators who, according to Senator Barbara Boxer, wanted "to hold Dr. Rice and the Bush administration accountable for their failures in Iraq and in the war on terrorism." Their reasoning was that Rice had acted irresponsibly in equating Hussein's regime with Islamist terrorism and some could not accept her previous record. Senator Robert Byrd voted against Rice’s appointment, indicating that she "has asserted that the President holds far more of the war power than the Constitution grants him."<ref>Robert Byrd (2005-01-25). "Standing for the Founding Principles of the Republic: Voting No on the Nomination of Dr. Rice as Secretary of State". Press release. http://byrd.senate.gov/speeches/byrd_speeches_2005_january/byrd_speeches_2005_january_lis/byrd_speeches_2005_january_lis_0.html. Retrieved 2008-11-04.</ref>
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== References  ==
 
== References  ==
  
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[[Category:Wikigender_University_student_article]][[Category:Governance]][[Category:Prominent_Women]]
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[[Category:Wikigender_University_student_article]][[Category:Governance]][[Category:United_States]]

Revision as of 14:22, 16 September 2011

Condoleezza Rice born November 14, 1954 is an American professor, politican, diplomat and author. She was the 66th
Condoleezza Rice.jpg
United States Secretary of State.

Rice was President Bush's National Security Advisor during his first term.She was also a professor of political science at Stanford University, as well as Provost from 1993-1999. Rice also served as the Soviet and East European Affairs Advisor to President George H.W. Bush during the dissolution of the Soviet Union and German reunification.[1]

Early/ Personal Life

Condoleezza Rice was born in Birmingham, Alabama, and grew up in the neighborhood of Titusville. She is the only child of Presbyterian minister Reverend John Wesley Rice, Jr., and wife, Angelena Ray.[2]

At the age of three, Rice started learning French, music, figure skating and ballet. At 15, she began classes with the idea of becoming a concert pianist. She decided on not becoming a concert pianist, when she realized that she was not good enough for a full time career. [3]

For high school, Rice St. Mary's Academy in Cherry Hills, Colorado, she graduated in 1970.

In 1974, at age 19, Rice earned her BA degree in political science, Phi Beta Kappa, from the University of Denver. In 1975, she obtained her Master's Degree in political science from the University of Notre Dame. She first worked in the State Department in 1977, during the Carter administration, as an intern in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. In 1981, at the age of 26, she received her PhD degree in Political Science from the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver. Her dissertation, along with some of her earlier publications, centered on military policy and politics in the former state of Czechoslovakia.[4]
Rice was a Democrat until 1982 when she changed her political affiliation to Republican after growing averse to former President Jimmy Carter's foreign policy.[5]

Rice has never married and has no children.

National Security Advisor (2001–2005)

On December 17, 2000, Rice was named as National Security Advisor and stepped down from her position at Stanford. She was the first woman to occupy the post. Rice earned the nickname of "Warrior Princess," reflecting strong nerve and delicate manners.[6]

During the summer of 2001, Rice met with CIA Director George Tenet to discuss the possibilities and prevention of terrorist
Secretary of State.jpg
attacks on American targets. Notably, on July 10, 2001, Rice met with Tenet in what he referred to as an "emergency meeting"[7]

In March 2004, Rice declined to testify before the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the 9/11 Commission). The White House claimed executive privilege under constitutional separation of powers and cited past tradition. Under pressure, Bush agreed to allow her to testify so long as it did not create a precedent of presidential staff being required to appear before United States Congress when so requested. Her appearance before the commission on April 8, 2004, was accepted by the Bush administration in part because she was not appearing directly before Congress. She thus became the first sitting National Security Advisor to testify on matters of policy.

Rice was a proponent of the 2003 invasion of After Iraq delivered its declaration of weapons of mass destruction to the United Nations on December 8, 2002, Rice wrote an editorial for The New York Times entitled "Why We Know Iraq Is Lying".[8]

Secretary of State (2005–2009)

Rice signing into office.jpg
On November 16, 2004, Bush nominated Rice to be Secretary of State. On January 26, 2005, the Senate confirmed her nomination by a vote of 85-13. The negative votes, the most cast against any nomination for Secretary of State since 1825, came from Senators who, according to Senator Barbara Boxer, wanted "to hold Dr. Rice and the Bush administration accountable for their failures in Iraq and in the war on terrorism." Their reasoning was that Rice had acted irresponsibly in equating Hussein's regime with Islamist terrorism and some could not accept her previous record. Senator Robert Byrd voted against Rice’s appointment, indicating that she "has asserted that the President holds far more of the war power than the Constitution grants him."[9]

References

  1. "Board of Directors". Millennium Challenge Corporation. Archived from the original on 2008-06-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20080607012010/http://www.mcc.gov/about/boardofdirectors/index.php. Retrieved January 21, 2009. "The Secretary of State is the Chair of the Board..."
  2. "Condoleezza Rice". Encyclopedia of World Biography. http://www.notablebiographies.com/news/Ow-Sh/Rice-Condoleezza.html. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
  3. Tommasini, Anthony (2006-04-09). "Condoleezza Rice on Piano". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/09/arts/music/09tomm.html?_r=1. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
  4. The Politics of Client Command: Party-Military Relations in Czechoslovakia, 1948–1975.. PhD dissertation. University of Denver. http://130.253.4.23/record=b2587932~S3.
  5. "The Republicans Showcase a Rising Star; Foreign Policy Fueled Rice's Party Switch and Her Climb to Prominence". Washington Post. http://www.highbeam.com/The+Washington+Post/publications.aspx?date=20000801&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;pageNumber=2. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
  6. #1 Condoleezza Rice". The Most Powerful Women. Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2005/11/MTNG.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
  7. Shenon, Philip; Mark Mazzetti (2006-10-02). "Records Show Tenet Briefed Rice on Al Qaeda Threat". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/02/washington/03ricecnd.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
  8. Rice, Condoleezza (2003-01-23). "Why We Know Iraq Is Lying". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E01E5DF1E30F930A15752C0A9659C8B63. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
  9. Robert Byrd (2005-01-25). "Standing for the Founding Principles of the Republic: Voting No on the Nomination of Dr. Rice as Secretary of State". Press release. http://byrd.senate.gov/speeches/byrd_speeches_2005_january/byrd_speeches_2005_january_lis/byrd_speeches_2005_january_lis_0.html. Retrieved 2008-11-04.

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