Difference between revisions of "Abortion"

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== About  ==
 
== About  ==
  
An abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in[[Image:Sovietabortionposter.jpg|thumb|right|250px]] or caused by its death.<ref>Dutt T, Matthews MP (1998). Gynaecology for Lawyers. 14. Routledge. ISBN 9781859412152.</ref> An abortion can occur spontaneously due to complications during pregnancy or can be induced. Abortion as a term most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy.<br>  
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An abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in[[Image:Sovietabortionposter.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Sovietabortionposter.jpg]] or caused by its death.<ref>Dutt T, Matthews MP (1998). Gynaecology for Lawyers. 14. Routledge. ISBN 9781859412152.</ref> An abortion can occur spontaneously due to complications during pregnancy or can be induced. Abortion as a term most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy.<br>  
  
 
== Methods<br>  ==
 
== Methods<br>  ==
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== Global Figures<br>  ==
 
== Global Figures<br>  ==
  
According to figures from the [[World Health Organization|World Health Organization and]] the [[UNDP|United Nations Development Programme]], approximately 42 million pregnancies are terminated each year; of which an estimated 20 million are terminated in an unsafe condition.&nbsp; It kills an estimated 70,000 women each year globally and accounts for 13% of all pregnancy-related deaths. Unsafe abortions also cause an additional 5 million women a year to become temporarily or permanently disabled.<ref>Fawcus, S. R. (2008). Maternal Mortality and Unsafe Abortion. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology , 22 (3), 533-548.</ref><ref>Shah I, A. E. (2009, Dec). Unsafe abortion: global and regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges. Journal of Obstretics and Gynaecology Canada , 1149-58.</ref><br>
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According to figures from the [[World Health Organization|World Health Organization and]] the [[UNDP|United Nations Development Programme]], approximately 42 million pregnancies are terminated each year; of which an estimated 20 million are terminated in an unsafe condition.&nbsp; It kills an estimated 70,000 women each year globally and accounts for 13% of all pregnancy-related deaths. Unsafe abortions also cause an additional 5 million women a year to become temporarily or permanently disabled.<ref>Fawcus, S. R. (2008). Maternal Mortality and Unsafe Abortion. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology , 22 (3), 533-548.</ref><ref>Shah I, A. E. (2009, Dec). Unsafe abortion: global and regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges. Journal of Obstretics and Gynaecology Canada , 1149-58.</ref><br>  
  
 
== Legislation<br>  ==
 
== Legislation<br>  ==
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*[[Contraceptives|Contraceptives]]&nbsp;  
 
*[[Contraceptives|Contraceptives]]&nbsp;  
 
*[[Contraception]]&nbsp;  
 
*[[Contraception]]&nbsp;  
*[[History of Oral Contraception and the Sexual Revolution]]&nbsp;
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*[[History of Oral Contraception and the Sexual Revolution]]&nbsp;  
 
*[[Gendercide in China]]&nbsp;  
 
*[[Gendercide in China]]&nbsp;  
*[["Female_Genocide"_in_India]]
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*[["Female Genocide" in India]]  
 
*[[Centre for Reproductive Rights]]&nbsp;  
 
*[[Centre for Reproductive Rights]]&nbsp;  
 
*[[Maternal Mortality]]&nbsp;  
 
*[[Maternal Mortality]]&nbsp;  
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[[Category:Reproductive_Rights]] [[Category:Medicine]] [[Category:Health]] [[Category:Reproductive_Rights,_reproductive_health]]
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[[Category:Reproductive_Rights]][[Category:Medicine]][[Category:Health]][[Category:Society_and_Culture]]

Revision as of 11:06, 7 June 2011

About

An abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in
Sovietabortionposter.jpg
or caused by its death.[1] An abortion can occur spontaneously due to complications during pregnancy or can be induced. Abortion as a term most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy.

Methods

There are several types of induced abortion:

  1. Suction-aspiration or vacuum abortion (the most common during the first 12 weeks): Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA) abortion consists of removing the fetus or embryo by suction using a manual syringe, while Electric Vacuum Aspiration (EVA) abortion uses an electric pump.[2]
  2. Dilation and curettage (D&C): Curettage refers to cleaning the walls of the uterus with a curette.[3]
  3. Once a pregnant woman is in her second trimester, other techniques are employed, including premature delivery or intact dilation and extraction (IDX) (also called intrauterine cranial decompression), which requires surgical decompression of the fetus' head before evacuation. IDX is sometimes called "partial-birth abortion," which has been federally banned in the United States.[4] A hysterotomy abortion is a procedure similar to a cesarean section, and is performed under general anesthesia because it is considered major abdominal surgery. It requires a smaller incision than a cesarean section and is used during later stages of pregnancy.[5]

Global Figures

According to figures from the World Health Organization and the United Nations Development Programme, approximately 42 million pregnancies are terminated each year; of which an estimated 20 million are terminated in an unsafe condition.  It kills an estimated 70,000 women each year globally and accounts for 13% of all pregnancy-related deaths. Unsafe abortions also cause an additional 5 million women a year to become temporarily or permanently disabled.[6][7]

Legislation

The Soviet Union, with legislation in 1920, Iceland with legislation in 1935, and Sweden in 1938 were three of the first countries to generally allow abortion. The second half of the 20th century saw the liberalization of abortion laws in other countries. The Abortion Act 1967 allowed abortion for limited reasons in the United Kingdom. In the 1973 case, Roe v. Wade, the United States Supreme Court struck down state laws banning abortion, ruling that such laws violated an implied right to privacy in the United States Constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada, similarly, in the case of R. v. Morgentaler, discarded its criminal code regarding abortion in 1988, and in 1993 struck down provincial regulations of abortion. By contrast, abortion in Ireland was affected by the addition of an amendment to the Irish Constitution in 1983 by popular referendum, recognizing "the right to life of the unborn". In 2007, Portugal legalised abortion until the 10th week of pregnancy after a popular referendum.

Since 1957, China has had one of the most open abortion policies in the world where abortions are free upon request of a pregnant woman. While simultaneously, China has been criticized harshly for its "One-child policy" which mandates abortion of fetus' if a woman already has a child. This law, along with the cultural preference for males, has led to a growing imbalance in the number of men and women in China today, and what may be referred to as 'gendercide'.

Only two of Africa's 53 countries have legal abortion upon request; Togo and Tunisia.  While Burundi and Zambia allow abortion for social health reasons, the rest of the continent restricts abortion under mostly colonial legal codes, and unsafe and clandestine abortions are widespread. Every day nearly 10,000 African women undergo unsafe abortions.[8]

Overall, the overwhelming majority of countries and areas permit abortion to be performed to save a pregnant woman’s life. National abortion laws and policies are significantly more restrictive in the developing world than in developed countries. In developed countries, abortion is permitted upon request in 31 (about two-thirds) countries. In contrast, only 1 in 7 developing countries allow abortion upon request. Access to abortion services is governed by existing laws and policies within countries. For example, Cambodia, China, DPR Korea, Japan, Mongolia, and Viet Nam are legally permissive countries, while Lao PDR, Malaysia, the Philippines, and most South Pacific island countries are legally restricted.[9]


See also


References

  1. Dutt T, Matthews MP (1998). Gynaecology for Lawyers. 14. Routledge. ISBN 9781859412152.
  2. Healthwise Medical Writer. (2008, Sept 29). Manual and Vaccuum Aspiriation for Abortion. Retrieved June 26 2010, from WebMD: http://women.webmd.com/manual-and-vacuum-aspiration-for-abortion#tw1112
  3. The World Health Organization. (2003). Managing Complications in Childbirth and Pregnancy: A Guide for Midwives and Doctors. Retrieved June 26, 2010, from WorldCat: http://www.worldcat.org/title/managing-complications-in-childbirth-and-pregnancy-a-guide-for-midwives-and-doctors/oclc/181845530
  4. American Pregnancy Association. (2006, Nov). Surgical Abortion Procedures. Retrieved June 26, 2010, from American Pregnancy Association: http://americanpregnancy.org/unplannedpregnancy/surgicalabortions.html
  5. MSN Encarta. (2009, 10 31). Abortion. Retrieved June 26, 2010, from http://www.webcitation.org/5kwr94iv9
  6. Fawcus, S. R. (2008). Maternal Mortality and Unsafe Abortion. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology , 22 (3), 533-548.
  7. Shah I, A. E. (2009, Dec). Unsafe abortion: global and regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges. Journal of Obstretics and Gynaecology Canada , 1149-58.
  8. Canadian Federation for Sexual Health. (2008, Feb 08). Abortion Law, History &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Religion. Retrieved June 26, 2010, from Childbirth by Choice Trust: http://web.archive.org/web/20080208053146/http://www.cbctrust.com/history_law_religion.php
  9. World Health Organization. (2005-2010). WHO Western Pacific Region - Reproductive health - Global and regional situation - Unsafe abortion. Retrieved June 26, 2010, from World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific: http://www.wpro.who.int/sites/rph/data/abortion.htm

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