Under-Five Mortality Rate
The under-five mortality rate is the probability (expressed as a rate per 1,000 live births) of a child born in a specified year dying before reaching the age of five if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. This indicator is used to address Millennium Development Goal number 4, Reducing Child Mortality.
This indicator measures child survival. It also reflects the social, economic and environmental conditions in which children (and others in society) live, including their health care. Because data on the incidences and prevalence of diseases (morbidity data) frequently are unavailable, mortality rates are often used to identify vulnerable populations. The under-five mortality rate captures more than 90 percent of global mortality among children under the age of 18.
Under-five mortality rates are higher for boys than for girls in countries without significant parental gender preferences. Under-five mortality better captures the effect of gender discrimination than infant mortality, as nutrition and medical interventions are more important in this age group, while biological differences have a higher impact during the first year of life. There may be gender-based biases in the reporting of child deaths.
Under-five mortality generally shows large disparities across geographical areas and between rural and urban areas. Under-five mortality may also vary across socio-economic groups. Children in some ethnic groups might also be at higher risk of malnutrition, poorer health and higher mortality. However, showing and analyzing data on specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive issue in the country. Gender differences may also be more pronounced in some social and ethnic groups.
- ↑ The World Bank Group. (2004). Under-Five Mortality Rate. Retrieved July 8, 2010, from The World Bank Group: Millennium Development Goals: http://ddp-ext.worldbank.org/ext/GMIS/gdmis.do?siteId=2&amp;amp;amp;amp;contentId=Content_t13&amp;amp;amp;amp;menuId=LNAV01HOME1
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 UNDG. (2003). Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals. The United Nations. New York: The United Nations.