Gender Equality in Senegal

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Senegal
flag_Senegal.png
Flag of Senegal
Population (in Mil.) 13.73
Gross Domestic Product (In USD Billions - WB) 14.05
Sex Ratio (m/f) 0.94
Life Expectancy Ratio (f/m) 1.048387097
Fertility Rate 4.78
Estimated Earned Income (f/m) 0.57
Tertiary Enrolment Ratio (f/m) 7.9
Women in Parliament (in %) 42.7
INDICES
Human Development Index 154/187
Social Institutions and Gender Index 41/86
Gender Inequality Index 154/186
Gender Equity Index 121/168
Women’s Economic Opportunity Index 108/128
Global Gender Gap Index 67/68
More information on variables

Contents

In the News

Social Institutions

Introduction

Senegal gained independence from France in 1960.[1] The country is predominantly Muslim (95% of the population), and French is the official language.[2] Senegal is a democracy that has never found itself under military or harsh authoritarian military rule, and the most recent presidential and National Assembly elections (2007) were deemed to be generally free and fair.[3] The situation in the south of the country remains unstable, due to ongoing conflict between government forces and the Democratic Forces of Casamance Movement (Mouvement des forces démocratiques de Casamance), a separatist movement.[4] In some areas, people have been displaced from their homes.[5] Senegal is classed by the World Bank as a lower middle income country .[6] While the country is relatively well-off in comparison to some of its neighbours, inequality is widespread, and the comparison between urban and rural areas is particularly striking.[7] In those families touched by poverty, women and girls are disproportionately affected, with girls taken out of school so that their brothers can continue, and women forced into low-paid and risky work to support their families.[8] Senegal has succeeded in putting in place a legal framework that in theory does much to protect women’s bodily integrity, although family law continues to discriminate against women.[9] In addition, while in urban areas, laws protecting women are generally respected, rural areas are still dominated by custom, and few women are aware of the legal rights that are in place to protect them.[10] Clearly, the particular impact of poverty and rural / urban inequality on women is shaped by social institutions that devalue and discriminate against them. Senegal’s 2001 constitution guarantees equality between women and men in its article 7.[11] The country has ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (in 1985), and the Optional Protocol on violence against women (in 2000).[12] The country has not reported to the CEDAW committee since 1994.[13] Senegal ratified the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa in 2005.[14] A National Strategy for Gender Equality and Equity has been developed, to run from 2005-2015.[15] The country’s Human Development Index (HDI) score in 2011 is 0.459, placing it at 155th place out of 187 ranked countries.[16] The Gender Inequality Index score is 0.566 which places Senegal at 114 out of 146 countries.[17] Senegal’s 2011 Global Gender Gap Index ranking is 0.6573, placing it in 92nd place (out of 135 countries).[18]

Discriminatory Family Code

Forced and early marriages are specifically banned in the Family Code, and the minimum legal age for marriage is 16 years for women and 20 years for men.[19] In addition to be legally recognised, marriages must be performed in front of a civil registrar, and each spouse must give their full and free consent.[20] But the government considers early marriage to be a significant problem in some parts of the country.[21] There are reports of girls as young as nine being married off.[22] Marriage is a symbol of high social position in Senegal, and few women remain single.[23] The average marriage age for women between 20 and 49 years is 19.6 years.[24] 2005 DHS survey data indicates that 29.7% of girls aged between 15 and 19 years of age were married, divorced or widowed.[25]13.5% of women aged 20-49 had been married before they turned 15, inevitably impacting on their right to receive an education.[26] Polygamy is legal in Senegal and as of 2005, was practised in 40% of families.[27] This included 19.8% of married girls aged 15-19.[28] Registered marriages in Senegal can be either monogamous or polygamous, in which case the husband can marry up to four women.[29] If the husband opts for neither of these options, the marriage is automatically considered to be polygamous.[30] Before entering into civil marriage, the wife must give her consent if the marriage is to by polygamous, but once married, the husband is under no obligation to notify her or gain her consent, if he chooses to take another wife.[31]

The Senegalese Family Code grants parental authority solely to the father, and women are unable to take legal responsibility for their children.[32] The father handles administrative procedures affecting his children, chooses the family’s place of residence[33] and receives family allowances. It is only possible for a woman to become the recognised head of household if her husband formally renounces his authority in court.[34] The proportion of households headed by women stood at 23.1%, as of 2005.[35] In the event of divorce, the issue of child custody is contingent on the type of marriage.[36] For civil marriages, the spouses must obtain a judicial divorce (this type of divorce rarely occurs outside urban areas); the court often grants custody to the mother while requiring the father to participate in their upkeep.[37] Women are far more likely to seek judicial divorces than men, although overall, only a minority of couples formalise divorces.[38] Repudiation, whereby a man can divorce his wife unilaterally and without warning, is not recognised in law, and women are able to request a civil divorce.[39] There are two forms of inheritance in Senegal, governed by civil law and Islamic law.[40] Civil law inheritance is favourable to widows and daughters, granting them the same rights as sons. [41] It is this form of inheritance that is most common in urban areas. By contrast, under Sharia law, daughters receive half of the amount that sons receive, and widows receive an eighth of their husbands property.[42] In rural areas, customary practices vary from region to region. In some cases, widows are considered to be part of the deceased husband’s property, and as such may be pressured to marry his brother, or expected to become part of a son’s household.[43] In 2005, only 46.24 % of widows inherited the majority of assets after their spouses.[44]

Restricted Physical Integrity

Senegal’s penal code was revised in January 1999 to include clauses criminalising domestic violence, rape, incest, sexual harassment, and female genital mutilation (FGM).[45] These changes to the law established punishments for violence against women of up to ten years in prison, but the law is not effectively implemented.[46] Accurate up-to-date data as to the prevalence of domestic violence is not available, but it is believed by women’s rights groups to be frequent and widely accepted.[47] This is backed up by data in the 2005 DHS, which found that 65.2% of women agreed with at least one ‘reason’ (from a list of five) for a man to beat his wife.[48] Victims are often reluctant to report cases – preferring to appeal to their families to help resolve the issue – and even when they do, the police rarely intervene and few cases reach court.[49] The United Nations, international organisations and various NGOs have campaigned for an end to violence against women, but a wide gulf persists between the legislative advances and traditional social attitudes.[50] Rape is also criminalised under the 1999 revised penal code, but spousal rape is not recognised.[51] Indeed, the concept of spousal rape is one that is not accepted in Senegalese society, as a woman is expected to be available to her husband for sex whenever he wants it.[52] Very few rape cases are taken to court, and of those that are, few result in a conviction.[53] In part, this is because sexual violence remains a taboo topic.[54] In addition, cases are often settled out of court, to avoid the publicity and costs associated with prosecution.[55]The 1999 revised penal code also covers exual harassment, but again, this is not properly enforced.[56]

Female genital mutilation (FGM) has been illegal under the Senegalese Penal Code since 1999.[57] It is one of the few countries in the region where anyone has been prosecuted under legislation banning FGM.[58]It is still practised, however, and is more common among Muslims and some particular ethnic groups than among Christians.[59] According to DHS data from 2005 quoted in a 2005 UNICEF report, 28.2% of women aged 15-49 had undergone the procedure.[60] Rates are higher in rural areas (34.7%) than in urban areas (21.6%), and for women who have no education (33.7%) or only primary education (25.3% - 19.1% of women with secondary education have been subjected to the procedure).[61] There is also great variation according to region and ethnic group.[62] It is often linked to acceptance, respectability and marriage for young women, one of the reasons why it has been so hard for people to abandon the practice.[63] There appears to be considerable political will, however, to challenge and eradicate FGM: in addition to criminalising the practice, the government has worked closely with national and international NGOs on campaigns to encourage abandonment of FGM.[64] Senegalese parliamentarians have also spoken out against the practice, and have visited villages to explain anti-FGM legislation to villages going through the process of abandoning the procedure.[65] 23.4% of women who underwent FGM questioned for the 2005 DHS said that they had no intention of subjecting their daughters to the practice.[66] Tostan, an American NGO, has run a very successful Community Empowerment Programme, which has encouraged different communities to come together to make a commitment to abandon FGM as a necessity for marriage in their district.[67] As of 2005, the Ministry of Women, Family, Social Development, and Women's Entrepreneurship reported that 1,679 out of an estimated 5,000 communities had formally abandoned the practice.[68] Senegal is a source, transit, and destination country for trafficking in persons.[69] Trafficking in children is a particular problem. Young girls are trafficked from rural areas to the cities to work as domestic servants.[70] Within Senegal and from neighbouring countries, each year hundreds of boys are sent by their parents to daraas (Koranic schools) in Dakar and other cities; in many such institutions, the children receive little or no instruction, and are instead forced out onto the streets to beg.[71] They are also subject to extreme neglect, as well as physical and sometimes sexual abuse.[72] In addition, both male and female children are involved in prostitution.[73] The law protects the right of couples to decide on the timing, spacing, and number of children they wish to have, and their right to access the information and contraceptive services that they need in order to realise this[74]. But poor provision of services, particularly in rural areas limits this right, so while 91.6% of women reported knowledge of at least one method of contraception, only 8.7% of women reported using contraception regularly.[75] The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) makes the point that women’s access to contraception may be limited not just because of cost and lack of information, but also because of inequality within personal relationships, which means women are unable to negotiate the use of contraception with their partners.[76] Elsewhere, the US Department of State reports of cases where husbands have apparently asked health practitioners to stop providing their wives with contraceptives.[77] These are backed up by data from 2005 DHS, indicating that 66.8% of husbands were making decisions about their wives’ health without consulting them.[78] Overall, this points to a disregard for the right of women to control their own bodies, and the number of children that they wish to have.[79] Abortion is only legal in cases where the pregnant woman’s life is in danger.[80]

Son Bias

There is virtually no discrepancy between vaccination rates for boys (58.1%) and girls (59.5%).[81] Infant and early childhood malnutrition rates are slightly higher for boys than for girls, as are infant and under-five mortality rates.[82] The high cost of education means that in poorer families, girls’ education is often sacrificed, to enable their brothers to continue schooling.[83] This is reflected in the fact that according to 2005 DHS data, 37.8% of boys aged 15-19 had received no education, compared to 49.3% of girls.[84] Son preference seems to be a factor in relation to access to education, but not early childhood care.

The male/female sex ratio for the total population in 2012 is 0.94.[85]

There is no evidence to suggest that Senegal is a country of concern in relation to missing women.

Restricted Resources and Entitlements

Under the Senegalese Constitution, women and men have equal property rights in regard to land ownership, and there have been government campaigns to encourage leaders in rural communities to ensure that this law is respected. [86] Women are legally entitled to acquire and own land independently of their husband or male relatives, and to retain ownership and control over their own property after marriage.[87] Customary practices relating to land ownership that discriminate against women are specifically banned under the constitution, but continue to limit women’s access to land, making it impossible for them to inherit land in many regions.[88] In some rural areas, under customary law land is assigned by village chiefs; women rarely benefit from this process.[89] In other areas, husbands are obliged to give their wives a portion of land for their own use (and failure to do so is grounds for divorce), but in polygamous marriages, this may result in each wife receiving a tiny amount of land.[90] In urban areas, women with the financial means to do so can buy, rent, and develop land.[91] Women and men have the same legal rights to bank accounts and bank loans, but in reality women often struggle to obtain loans.[92] Because women tend to have use, but not ownership, of land, they are unable to provide the security needed to secure loans.[93] Many farming cooperatives do not recognise women as producers in their own right, meaning that they cannot access the credit and other services provided by these cooperatives.[94] In response to the difficulties rural women face in accessing credit, the government has launched a large-scale microfinance initiative.[95]

Restricted Civil Liberties

Under Senegalese law, married women do not have the right to choose where to live, as this right falls exclusively to their husbands.[96] This inevitably limits married women’s freedom of movement, for instance in terms of moving for work. On a day-to-day basis, 49% of women reported that they had to obtain their husband’s permission to visit friends or relatives, indicating considerable restrictions on women’s freedom of movement.[97]

Freedom of expression is not respected, despite being protected in the Constitution.[98] Journalists who have spoken out against President Abdoulaye Wade have faced intimidation and arbitrary arrest.[99] 11.9% of women questioned in the 2005 DHS reported having no access to the media.[100] This proportion is actually much lower than that for men (45% - the sample size was considerably smaller), indicating that gender does not appear to be a factor limiting access to the media.[101] Freedom of association and assembly is protected under Senegalese law, but not always respected.[102] In 2008, protests against rising food prices were violently suppressed.[103] Women in Senegal enjoy full political rights to vote and stand for election.[104] A quota was introduced in 2007 requiring all political parties to introduce absolute gender parity (i.e. 50/50) , but the legislation did not take effect in time for that year’s legislative elections.[105] The law was later declared unconstitutional.[106] Of 14,000 villages, as of 2007, only three were headed by women.[107] Even when women are elected to office, that does not mean that they will necessarily be included in decision-making processes: the 2007 Japan International Coordination Agency country gender profile for Senegal reports of cases where women members of a rural council were not informed about an important budget meeting, and where a woman council member was represented at another meeting by her husband.[108] In 2010, National Assembly has adopted the Law on Equality of Men and Women in the electoral lists (Loi Instituant la Parite Absolue Homme-Femme).[109] Women’s rights groups are very active in Senegal, and have led vocal campaigns against police failure to prosecute perpetrators in cases of violence against women, as well as encouraging communities to abandon FGM.[110] Women in Senegal are entitled to 14 weeks’ paid maternity leave, and discrimination in employment on the basis of gender is against the law.[111] The World Bank considers 65% of women in Senegal to be economically active.[112] Same-sex relationships are illegal in Senegal.[113] Men suspected of engaging in same-sex relationships have faced arbitrary arrest, torture, and unfair trials, and the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA) report that persecution of women and men belonging to the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community intensified over the two years to 2010.[114]

References

  1. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) World Factbook: Senegal, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html (accessed 15 November 2010))
  2. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) World Factbook: Senegal, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html (accessed 15 November 2010)
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  24. MICS (2011)
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  42. Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)(n.d.) ‘Gender and land rights database: country report, Senegal’, http://www.fao.org/gender/landrights/report/, accessed 15 November 2010 (in French)., quoting WILDAF/FEDDAF (2002) ‘Afrique de l’Ouest, Femmes, droit et développement en Afrique: Pour une société sans violence à l’égard des femmes au Sénégal’; Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, p.21
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  45. Women, Law, and Development in Africa (WiLDAF) – West Africa (2004), Situation des femmes au Sénégal, WiLDAF, Lomé. http://www.wildaf-ao.org/eng/spip.php?article47 (accessed 17 November 2010).
  46. Women, Law, and Development in Africa (WiLDAF) – West Africa (2004), Situation des femmes au Sénégal, WiLDAF, Lomé. http://www.wildaf-ao.org/eng/spip.php?article47 (accessed 17 November 2010); Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, p.9; US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Senegal’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135973.htm (accessed 15 November 2010)
  47. japan international cooperation agency (jica) (2007), ‘senegal: country gender profile’, prepared by the inter africa network for women, media, gender equity and development (famedev), dakar, p.9; US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Senegal’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135973.htm (accessed 15 November 2010)
  48. Ndiaye, Salif, et Mohamed Ayad (2006) Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Sénégal 2005. Calverton, Maryland, USA : Centre de Recherche pour le Développement Humain [Sénégal] et ORC Macro http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=583&ctry_id=36&SrchTp=ctry (accessed 17 November 2010), p.51
  49. Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, P.9; Us Department Of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports On Human Rights: Senegal’, Http://Www.State.Gov/G/Drl/Rls/Hrrpt/2009/Af/135973.Htm (Accessed 15 November 2010)
  50. Us Department Of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports On Human Rights: Senegal’, http://www.state.gov/G/Drl/Rls/Hrrpt/2009/Af/135973.htm (Accessed 15 November 2010); Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, P.9
  51. Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, P.10
  52. Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, P.10
  53. Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, p.10; US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Senegal’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135973.htm (accessed 15 November 2010)
  54. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Senegal’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135973.htm (accessed 15 November 2010)
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  56. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Senegal’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135973.htm (accessed 15 November 2010)
  57. UNICEF (2005a) ‘Changing a harmful social convention: female genital mutilation/cutting’, Innocenti Digest, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, UNICEF, Florence, p.29
  58. Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, p.10; UNICEF (2005a) ‘Changing a harmful social convention: female genital mutilation/cutting’, Innocenti Digest, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, UNICEF, Florence, p.29. As of 2005, the other countries were Burkina Faso, Egypt, and Ghana.
  59. UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) (2005b), Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Exploration, UNICEF, New York, NY. Available at http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/FGM-C_final_10_October.pdf (accessed 11 October 2010).p.10
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  61. UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) (2005b), Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Exploration, UNICEF, New York, NY. Available at http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/FGM-C_final_10_October.pdf (accessed 11 October 2010). pp.32, 33
  62. Ndiaye, Salif, et Mohamed Ayad (2006) Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Sénégal 2005. Calverton, Maryland, USA : Centre de Recherche pour le Développement Humain [Sénégal] et ORC Macro http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=583&ctry_id=36&SrchTp=ctry (accessed 17 November 2010), p.239
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  64. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Senegal’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135973.htm (accessed 15 November 2010); Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, p.10
  65. UNICEF (2005a) ‘Changing a harmful social convention: female genital mutilation/cutting’, Innocenti Digest, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, UNICEF, Florence, p.31
  66. Ndiaye, Salif, et Mohamed Ayad (2006) Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Sénégal 2005. Calverton, Maryland, USA : Centre de Recherche pour le Développement Humain [Sénégal] et ORC Macro http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=583&ctry_id=36&SrchTp=ctry (accessed 17 November 2010) p.244
  67. UNICEF (2007) State of the World’s Children : the Double Dividend of Gender Equality, New York: UNICEF http://www.unicef.org/sowc07/docs/sowc07.pdf , p.76; UNICEF (2005a) ‘Changing a harmful social convention: female genital mutilation/cutting’, Innocenti Digest, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, UNICEF, Florence, pp.23-24
  68. Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, p.10. See also: Tostan (2009) ‘Tostan: community led development’, Tostan, Dakar, http://www.tostan.org/data/images/tostan%20brochure%28final2sept2009%29%20low-res.pdf (accessed 15 November 2010), p.8;, UNICEF (2005a) ‘Changing a harmful social convention: female genital mutilation/cutting’, Innocenti Digest, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, UNICEF, Florence pp.23-24
  69. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Senegal’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135973.htm (accessed 15 November 2010)
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  71. Human Rights Watch (2010) ‘“Off the Backs of the Children” Forced Begging and Other Abuses against Talibés in Senegal’, Human Rights Watch, New York
  72. Human Rights Watch (2010) ‘“Off the Backs of the Children” Forced Begging and Other Abuses against Talibés in Senegal’, Human Rights Watch, New York
  73. Human Rights Watch (2010) ‘“Off the Backs of the Children” Forced Begging and Other Abuses against Talibés in Senegal’, Human Rights Watch, New York
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  77. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Senegal’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135973.htm (accessed 15 November 2010)
  78. Ndiaye, Salif, et Mohamed Ayad (2006) Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Sénégal 2005. Calverton, Maryland, USA : Centre de Recherche pour le Développement Humain [Sénégal] et ORC Macro http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=583&ctry_id=36&SrchTp=ctry (accessed 17 November 2010), p.48
  79. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Senegal’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135973.htm (accessed 15 November 2010)
  80. UNDP (2007) ’World abortion policies’, data downloaded from http://www.devinfo.info/genderinfo/ (accessed 21 October 2010).
  81. Ndiaye, Salif, et Mohamed Ayad (2006) Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Sénégal 2005. Calverton, Maryland, USA : Centre de Recherche pour le Développement Humain [Sénégal] et ORC Macro http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=583&ctry_id=36&SrchTp=ctry (accessed 17 November 2010)p.151
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  83. Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, p.17
  84. Ndiaye, Salif, et Mohamed Ayad (2006) Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Sénégal 2005. Calverton, Maryland, USA : Centre de Recherche pour le Développement Humain [Sénégal] et ORC Macro http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=583&ctry_id=36&SrchTp=ctry (accessed 17 November 2010) pp. 18-19
  85. Central Intelligence Agency (2012) The World Fact Book: Sex Ratio, available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2018.html, accessed 9 March 2012
  86. Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)(n.d.) ‘Gender and land rights database: country report, Senegal’, http://www.fao.org/gender/landrights/report/, accessed 15 November 2010 (in French)., quoting WILDAF/FEDDAF (2002) ‘Afrique de l’Ouest, Femmes, droit et développement en Afrique: Pour une société sans violence à l’égard des femmes au Sénégal’; Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, p.21; Women, Law, and Development in Africa (WiLDAF) – West Africa (2004), Situation des femmes au Sénégal, WiLDAF, Lomé. http://www.wildaf-ao.org/eng/spip.php?article47 (accessed 17 November 2010)
  87. Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)(n.d.) ‘Gender and land rights database: country report, Senegal’, http://www.fao.org/gender/landrights/report/, accessed 15 November 2010 (in French)., quoting WILDAF/FEDDAF (2002) ‘Afrique de l’Ouest, Femmes, droit et développement en Afrique: Pour une société sans violence à l’égard des femmes au Sénégal’; Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, p.21
  88. Women, Law, and Development in Africa (WiLDAF) – West Africa (2004), Situation des femmes au Sénégal, WiLDAF, Lomé. http://www.wildaf-ao.org/eng/spip.php?article47 (accessed 17 November 2010); Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, p.21; Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Senegal, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7912 (accessed 15 November 2010)
  89. Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)(n.d.) ‘Gender and land rights database: country report, Senegal’, http://www.fao.org/gender/landrights/report/, accessed 15 November 2010 (in French).
  90. Japan International Cooperation Agency (Jica) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (Famedev), Dakar, p.21; Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)(n.d.) ‘Gender and land rights database: country report, Senegal’, http://www.fao.org/gender/landrights/report/, accessed 15 November 2010 (in French).
  91. FAO (n.d), quoting Faye, J. Février 2003. Femmes rurales et foncier au Sénégal, Communication à l’atelier international «Femmes rurales et foncier», Réseau national des Femmes rurales du Sénégal avec le soutien du Projet FAO-Dimitra et d’ENDA-Pronat, Thiès, Sénégal
  92. Women, Law, and Development in Africa (WiLDAF) – West Africa (2004), Situation des femmes au Sénégal, WiLDAF, Lomé. http://www.wildaf-ao.org/eng/spip.php?article47 (accessed 17 November 2010); Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)(n.d.) ‘Gender and land rights database: country report, Senegal’, http://www.fao.org/gender/landrights/report/, accessed 15 November 2010 (in French).
  93. Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)(n.d.) ‘Gender and land rights database: country report, Senegal’, http://www.fao.org/gender/landrights/report/, accessed 15 November 2010 (in French)
  94. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (2007), ‘Senegal: Country Gender Profile’, Prepared By The Inter Africa Network For Women, Media, Gender Equity And Development (FAMEDEV), Dakar, p.22
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  96. Women, Law, and Development in Africa (WiLDAF) – West Africa (2004), Situation des femmes au Sénégal, WiLDAF, Lomé. http://www.wildaf-ao.org/eng/spip.php?article47 (accessed 17 November 2010)
  97. Ndiaye, Salif, et Mohamed Ayad (2006) Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Sénégal 2005. Calverton, Maryland, USA : Centre de Recherche pour le Développement Humain [Sénégal] et ORC Macro http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=583&ctry_id=36&SrchTp=ctry (accessed 17 November 2010), p.48
  98. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Senegal’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135973.htm (accessed 15 November 2010)
  99. Amnesty International (2010) Amnesty International Report 2009, State of the World’s Human Rights, London: Amnesty Internationalhttp://thereport.amnesty.org/sites/default/files/AIR2010_EN.pdf (accessed 8 November 2010), p.279
  100. Ndiaye, Salif, et Mohamed Ayad (2006) Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Sénégal 2005. Calverton, Maryland, USA : Centre de Recherche pour le Développement Humain [Sénégal] et ORC Macro http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=583&ctry_id=36&SrchTp=ctry (accessed 17 November 2010) p.35
  101. Ndiaye, Salif, et Mohamed Ayad (2006) Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Sénégal 2005. Calverton, Maryland, USA : Centre de Recherche pour le Développement Humain [Sénégal] et ORC Macro http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=583&ctry_id=36&SrchTp=ctry (accessed 17 November 2010) p.36
  102. Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Senegal, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7912 (accessed 15 November 2010)
  103. Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Senegal, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7912 (accessed 15 November 2010)
  104. Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)(n.d.) ‘Gender and land rights database: country report, Senegal’, http://www.fao.org/gender/landrights/report/, accessed 15 November 2010 (in French).
  105. Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Senegal, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7912 (accessed 15 November 2010
  106. WiLDAF (2007), ‘Senegalese women have lost a battle and not the war: the law on parity has been declared unconstitutional by the constitutional Court’, http://www.wildaf-ao.org/eng/spip.php?article1078 (accessed 17 November 2010)
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  109. Loi No. 2010-11 Instituant la Parite Absolue Homme-Femme, Republic of Senegal
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  112. World Bank Data: Labor participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+), http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.CACT.FE.ZS (accessed 17 November 2010)
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  114. Amnesty International (2010) Amnesty International Report 2009, State of the World’s Human Rights, London: Amnesty International. http://thereport.amnesty.org/sites/default/files/AIR2010_EN.pdf (accessed 8 November 2010), p.279; ILGA (2010) ‘LGBT Senegalese Speak Out’, http://ilga.org/ilga/en/article/mvx9mbh1ym (Accessed 15 November 2010)

Sources


The Africa for Women's Rights Campaign

Africa4womensrights.png

Key facts

The Campaign

On 8 March 2009 the "Africa for Women's Rights" Campaign was launched at the initiative of the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), in collaboration with fove non-governmental regional organisations: the African Center for Democracy and Human Rights Studies(ACDHRS), Femmes Africa Solidarité (FAS), Women’s Aid Collective (WACOL), Women in Law and Development in Africa (WILDAF) and Women and Law in Southern Africa (WLSA). These organisations make up the Steering Committee responsible for the coordination of the Campaign.

The Campaign aims to put an end to discrimination and violence against women in Africa, calling on states to ratify international and regional instruments protecting women's rights, to repeal all discriminatory laws, to adopt laws protecting the rights of women and to take all necessary measures to wensure their effective implementation.

Country Focus: Senegal

Although Senegal has ratified the main international and regional women’s rights protection instruments, many of their provisions continue to be violated in law and practice.

The Coalition of the Campaign remains particularly concerned by the following violations of women’s rights in Senegal: persistent discriminatory legislation, notably in family law, harmful traditional practices, such as early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation, widespread violence against women, limited access to education, employment, decision-making positions, health services and land.

Read more

Sources


The Women, Business and the Law

Where are laws equal for men and women? 

The Women, Business and the Law report presents indicators based on laws and regulations affecting women's prospects as entrepreneurs and employees. Several of these indicators draw on the Gender Law Library, a collection of over 2,000 legal provisions impacting women's economic status. This report does not seek to judge or rank countries, but to provide information to inform discussions about women’s economic rights. Women, Business and the Law provides data covering 6 areas: accessing institutions,using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court. Read more about the methodology.

For detailed information on Senegal, please visit the Women, Business and
the Law Senegal
page.

Sources


The FAO Gender and Land Rights Database

FAO logo.jpg

The FAO Gender and Land Rights Database contains country level information on social, economic, political and cultural issues related to the gender inequalities embedded in those rights. Disparity on land access is one of the major causes for social and gender inequalities in rural areas, and it jeopardizes, as a consequence, rural food security as well as the wellbeing of individuals and families.

Six categories

The Database offers information on the 6 following Categories:

For detailed information on Senegal, please visit the report on Senegal in the FAO Gender and Land Rights Database.

The UN Secretary General's database on violence against women

The UN Secretary General's database on violence against women has been established to coordinate the efforts to eliminate all forms of violence against women and to determine the impact of the policies and programs for combating such violence. It has been established after a resolution from the General Assembly of the United Nations calling for an intensification of efforts to eliminate all forms of violence against women.

Sources of Information

The primary source of information for the database is the responses received from Member States to the questionnaire on violence against women, of September 2008, and subsequent updates. Other sources of information include:

"For detailed information on Senegal, please visit the country page evaluation in the ""Senegal's country page in the UN's Secretary General database on violence against women"

Progress Assessment of MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

Millennium Development Goal #3 is divided into three sub-categories, each of them focusing on different areas: education, employment wage and political power. `

MDG Tracking Index of Senegal-2010

Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education

Gender Parity Index in primary Level Enrolment was at 0.94 in 2004[1] and according to the Senegalese MDG assessment, it was attained in 2006[2].At the secondary, it is at 1.07 and at 0.66 at the tertiary level. The women/men literacy rate in Senegal was 0.77 in 2011 UNDP Senegal. [3]

Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector

26.5% were paid workers in the non-agricultural sector in 2005.

Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament

19.2% of the Parliament seats were held by women in Senegal in 2007[4]. In 2010, a law was voted which established compulsory parity in all the elective functions in Senegal. [5]

The MDG Track Global Index for Senegal is at 31% in 2010 and the country is deemed as "off track".[6]

References

  1. UNP. MDG Monitor. Senegal.http://www.mdgmonitor.org/map.cfm?goal=&indicator=&cd=
  2. Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement: Progrés réalisés et perspectives.2010.Ministére de l'économie et des Finances, Senegal.
  3. Millennium Development Goals.http://www.undp.org.sn/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=65&Itemid=125.
  4. UNP. MDG Monitor. Senegal.http://www.mdgmonitor.org/map.cfm?goal=&indicator=&cd=
  5. Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement: Progrés réalisés et perspectives.2010.Ministére de l'économie et des Finances, Senegal.
  6. MDG Track Global Index. Senegal

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