Gender Equality in Swaziland

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Flag of Swaziland
Population (in Mil.) 1.23
Gross Domestic Product (In USD Billions - WB) 4.05
Sex Ratio (m/f) 0.99
Life Expectancy Ratio (f/m) 0.979591837
Fertility Rate 3.11
Estimated Earned Income (f/m)
Tertiary Enrolment Ratio (f/m) 4.4
Women in Parliament (in %) 1.8
Human Development Index 141/187
Social Institutions and Gender Index 74/86
Gender Inequality Index 141/186
Gender Equity Index 74/168
Women’s Economic Opportunity Index /128
Global Gender Gap Index /68
More information on variables

The Constitution of Swaziland, adopted in February 2006, grants identical legal rights to men and women, but Swazi tradition continues to restrict women in inferior roles. Legislation in Swaziland is based on a dual system of traditional and civil laws. Several discriminatory laws are still in force, having not yet been aligned with the anti-discrimination measures in the Constitution.

About one-third of households in Swaziland are headed by women. Those living in rural areas face the greatest challenges as their lives are largely determined by common law, which contains numerous provisions that undermine gender equality.

Social Institutions

The Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) measures gender-based discrimination in social norms, practices and laws across 160 countries. The SIGI comprises country profiles, a classification of countries and a database; it serves as a research, policy and advocacy tool for the development community and policy makers.

The SIGI covers five dimensions of discriminatory social institutions, spanning major socio-economic areas that affect women’s lives: discriminatory family code, restricted physical integrity, son bias, restricted resources and assets, and restricted civil liberties. The SIGI’s variables quantify discriminatory social institutions such as unequal inheritance rights, early marriage, violence against women, and unequal land and property rights.

In the 2014 edition of the SIGI, Swaziland has medium levels of discrimination against women in social institutions. It has lower discrimination in son bias and higher discrimination in restricted civil liberties. Read the full country profile and access the data here:

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