Gender Equality in Kyrgyzstan

  • Edit
  • Discuss
  • History
From wikigender.org
Jump to: navigation, search




Kyrgyzstan
flag_Kyrgyzstan.png
Flag of Kyrgyzstan
Population (in Mil.) 5.61
Gross Domestic Product (In USD Billions - WB) 6.61
Sex Ratio (m/f) 0.96
Life Expectancy Ratio (f/m) 1.121212121
Fertility Rate 2.63
Estimated Earned Income (f/m) 0.54
Tertiary Enrolment Ratio (f/m) 48.8
Women in Parliament (in %) 23.3
INDICES
Human Development Index 125/187
Social Institutions and Gender Index 33/86
Gender Inequality Index 125/186
Gender Equity Index 44/168
Women’s Economic Opportunity Index 94/128
Global Gender Gap Index 63/68
More information on variables
 

Social Institutions

Having been annexed by the Russian empire in 1876, the territory that is now the Kyrgyz Republic (also known as Kyrgyzstan) became a republic within the Soviet Union in 1936, and an independent state in 1991.[1] Since then, the country has seen significant political, social, and economic reform and upheaval, including two popular uprisings.[2]Kyrgyzstan is classified by the World Bank as a low income country, and remains one of the poorest of the former Soviet Republics.[3] The economy and individual households are heavily reliant on remittances from migrant workers abroad (mainly in Russia and Kazakhstan).[4] The majority of the population are ethnic Kyrgyz, but there are also significant Uzbek and Russian minorities.[5] In June 2010, violence erupted in the southern cities of Osh and Jalalabad between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks (who are concentrated in this area), leading to 187 deaths (according to official figures) and the displacement of 375,000 people.[6] Islam is the main religion.[7]

As elsewhere in the former Soviet Union, the transition to a market economy and many aspects of the reforms to social provision that have taken place in Kyrgyzstan since 1991 have had a negative impact on women. This has been exacerbated by the emergence of cultural stereotypes and practices that discriminate against women and limit their role in society, most noticeably a growing acceptance (and justification) of women’s economic dependence, domestic violence, and abduction for forced marriage, particularly in rural areas.[8]

Article 16 of the new Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic (passed by referendum in June 2010) guarantees equal rights for women and men, and prohibits all discrimination on the grounds of gender, ethnic origin or religious belief, and all other distinguishing social characteristics.[9] The country ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women in 1997, and the Optional Protocol on violence against women in 2002.[10] A ‘Law on State Guarantees of Equal Rights and Equal Opportunities for Men and Women’ has been in place since 2003 (revised in 2008).[11] Since 1996, there have been various state bodies responsible for gender policy, but consistent under-resourcing have limited their effectiveness.[12]

In 2011, the Kyrgyz Republic had a Human Development Index (HDI) score of 0.615, placing it in 126th place (out of a total of 187 countries).[13] The Gender Inequality Index for the same year was 0.370 (66th place out of 146 countries).[14] Kyrgyzstan is ranked in 44th place in the 2011 Global Gender Gap Index, with a score of 0.7036.[15]

Discriminatory Family Code

The Kyrgyz Family Code sets the legal age of marriage at 18 years for both men and women, but this can be reduced by up to two years in exceptional circumstances (e.g. pregnancy).[16] In 2006 8% of girls between 15 and 19 years of age were married or in union,[17] which represents a decrease from 11.5% in 1999.[18] According to data from the 2006 Multiple-Indicator Cluster (MICS) survey, 12.2% of women questioned were married before their 18th birthday, with higher rates in rural areas than in urban areas, in poorer families, and among women who had not completed secondary school.[19] Only registered marriages are recognised under Kyrgyz law, meaning that the increasing numbers of women entering unregistered religious marriages have no legal rights in regard to property, divorce and inheritance.[20] In addition, under the family code, only marriages were both parties have given their consent to the union are recognised.[21] However, young women throughout Kyrgyzstan are sometimes abducted and forced into marriage (discussed in greater detail below).[22] This often curtails the completion of their secondary or university education.[23]

Polygamy is prohibited under the Criminal Code, but the practice is said to be increasing.[24] 1.7% of women questioned for the 2006 MICS stated that they were in polygynous (i.e. one male partner with multiple female partners) unions.[25] As with all unregistered marriages, women in polygynous marriages have no legally recognised rights.[26] In 2007, a proposed amendment to the Criminal Code that would have removed the clause banning polygamy was rejected by the Kyrgyzstan Parliament.[27]

The Kyrgyzstan family code grants equal rights to men and women in family relations; it states that parental authority should be shared by the mother and father, who should make joint decisions about their children’s education, and that housework should be shared equally between the two spouses.[28] In practice, roles within the household are premised on rigid gender and age hierarchies, with women and girls expected to defer to husbands and other male family members (and daughters-in-law to defer to mothers-in-law), and responsible for the bulk of domestic labour.[29]

There is no legal discrimination against Kyrgyz women in the matter of inheritance: the Family Code guarantees equal rights in regard to the distribution of property.[30] In practice, particularly in rural areas, women are discriminated against in the disposal of family property, and disputes regarding inheritance are typically resolved in favour of men.[31] In addition, agricultural land is indivisible, and can only be passed on to one heir.[32] In many families, the youngest son and his wife are expected to remain at home and care for his parents in old age, inevitably inheriting the parents’ property on their death.[33]

Restricted Physical Integrity

In her report, the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women (who visited Kyrgyzstan in 2009) notes that violence against women as an issue is gradually gaining increased visibility in the Kyrgyz Republic, as a result of efforts by both civil society and the government.[34] However, a relatively strong legislative framework (in comparison to other countries in the region) to protect women from gender-based violence has failed to translate into effective implementation. [35]

Domestic violence is punishable under the Kyrgyzstani Penal Code, but it is not listed as a specific crime and is treated in the same way as all other types of violence.[36] The 2003 Law on Social-Legal Protection from Domestic Violence is designed to prevent, rather than penalise, such violence; it includes provisions such as emergency protection orders and shelter.[37] Recent research and interviews with those working on domestic violence issues in Kyrgyzstan indicate that domestic violence is widespread, and that rates are increasing.[38] According to one study cited in the Special Rapporteur’s report, one in four women has experienced physical violence.[39] Sadly, many women appear to accept that violence from their partner or in-laws is an inevitable aspect of married life: in the 2006 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 38% of women questioned agreed with at least one of three ‘reasons’ for a man to beat his wife.[40] Most cases of domestic violence are said to go unreported, because women are reluctant to reveal ‘private’ problems to the outside world, fear retaliation from partners on whom they are financially dependent, or are unaware of their legal rights or of what support services are available.[41] When women do go to the police for help, they often find that their cases are not taken seriously, or police are reluctant to intervene in ‘family matters’.[42] Limited support services including crisis centres and one shelter are available to women who have experienced domestic violence, all provided by NGOs reliant on international donors, with little or no support from the state.[43] The government has, however, supported national campaigns to raise awareness of domestic violence, and provide information about support services that are available.[44]

Rape is a criminal offence, but spousal rape is not specifically included as a criminal offence in the Kyrgyzstan Criminal Code.[45] Rape cases are seldom reported to the police, and very few of those that are recorded are subsequently brought to court.[46] According to the Special Rapporteur’s findings, sexual harassment is significant but unacknowledged problem in Kyrgyzstan.[47]

Bride-kidnapping – which is illegal under Kyrgyzstani law – involves the abduction of a girl or young woman by a group of men, including the ‘groom’, who may be someone the woman knows, or a complete stranger.[48] Kidnappings occur principally among the ethnic Kyrgyz majority, take place in every region of the country but most commonly in rural areas, and women and girls under the age of 25 are most at risk.[49] The woman is taken to the abductor’s house, where she is physically and or psychologically coerced by the abductor’s mother and other female relatives into agreeing to marry him.[50] In some cases, this includes being raped by the abductor, after which she may be shamed into marrying him rather than returning to her family.[51] It is very difficult to ascertain the number of women who are forced into marriage this way, but the practice is considered to be widespread in some areas. According to a 2006 Human Rights Watch report, as many as 30% of marriages may be the result of bride kidnapping,[52] while UNFPA estimated that in certain villages, as many as 80% of marriages result from abductions.[53] Punishments for abduction for forced marriage include prison sentences of up to three years, but there are very few convictions, as few abducted women seek help from the police, and even when they do, police are reluctant to investigate.[54] In some cases, the kidnapping may in fact be staged and purely symbolic – functioning as a way of allowing a couple to marry without their families’ consent and justified on the grounds of tradition.[55] But as the Special Rapporteur notes in her report, ‘[t]he cultural dimension and the misunderstandings surrounding this phenomenon have impeded efforts to recognize, combat and punish genuine cases of bride-kidnapping’.[56]

Trafficking in persons has been illegal under Kyrgyzstan’s criminal code since 2003, and the government has worked with local and international NGOs and UN agencies to raise awareness of trafficking, and support services that are available.[57] However, Kyrgyzstan is considered to be a source and transit country for trafficking in women for the purposes of forced prostitution, with women trafficked to UAE, Turkey, China, South Korea, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Saudi Arabia.[58] Some support is provided to victims of trafficking at two NGO-run shelters – one in the capital, Bishkek, the other in Osh, in the south of the country. The NGOs operating these shelters and other support services do receive some financial and in-kind assistance from the state.[59]

According to UNFPA, the violent events that took place in southern Kyrgyzstan in summer 2010 left women in the region vulnerable to gender-based violence, and unable to access reproductive health services.[60]

Women in Kyrgyzstan have the right to use and obtain information about contraception, and family planning services are provided by the state.[61] According to the 2006 MICS, 47.8% of women reported using some form of contraception.[62] Health care is one of the sectors that has declined considerably since independence, leaving many women in rural areas without access to adequate healthcare services in general, and reproductive healthcare services in particular.[63] Abortion is available on demand in Kyrgyzstan.[64]

Female genital mutilation does not seem to be a common practice in Kyrgyzstan.

Son Bias

Infant mortality rates are higher for boys than for girls.[65] Gender disaggregated data regarding immunisation rates are not available for the Kyrgyz Republic, however according to a 2007 UNICEF report, immunisation rates overall are very high (between 96% and 99% depending on the vaccine).[66] According to UNFPA, secondary school enrolment rates are slightly higher for girls (86%) than for boys (85%).[67] In her report, the Special Rapporteur notes that girls are more likely to complete secondary schooling, and that there are more women than men attending university.[68]

The figures above would not indicate that Kyrgyzstan is a country of concern in regard to son preference in early childhood care or access to education.

According to the Central Intelligence Agency, the male/female sex ratio for the total population in 2012 is 0.96.[69]

There is no evidence to suggest that Kyrgyzstan is a country of concern in relation to missing women.

Restricted Resources and Entitlements

Technically, there is no legal discrimination against Kyrgyz women in regard to access to land. However, under land reform introduced following Independence, land titles distributed following the break-up of collective farms were issued to households rather than individuals, and registered in the name of the household head.[70] As most households are headed by men, this meant that few women were able to register as land owners.[71] In addition, a return to manual family farming has revived practices that favour women over men, and there is evidence of the re-emergence of stereotypes that prevent women from fully exercising their rights to own and dispose of property in rural areas.[72] There is also widespread ignorance among women regarding their land rights. According to the 2007 CEDAW report, this is something that the government has been actively addressing, with education campaigns for women on their legal rights, and training in up-to-date agricultural methods.[73]

Under the Kyrgyzstan family code, women and men have equal property rights in marriage, and when a couple marries, they must sign a marital contract stating the division of property between them.[74] According to the 2007 CEDAW report, in rural areas in particular, the right of women to dispose of family property is often ignored, as under customary practices, men own land and buildings, while women own moveable property within the home.[75] In addition, legal protection is only accorded when the marriage has been registered.

Kyrgyz women are not legally restricted in their access to bank loans.[76] In practice, in rural areas it is very difficult for anyone to acquire credit.[77] In rural and urban areas, women are often refused credit because they are unable to offer sufficient guarantees, or because of prejudice on the part of bank officials.[78] Micro-credit services are offered by the government and by NGOs.[79] According to the 2007 CEDAW report, 80% of recipients of micro-credit are women,[80] indicating that access to other forms of credit among women is difficult.

Restricted Civil Liberties

There are no legal restrictions on freedom of movement within and from Kyrgyzstan, although internal migrants are officially unable to access government services and benefits in their new place of residency until they have obtained local residency permits.[81] On a day-to-day basis though, it appears that freedom of movement for some women in Kyrgyzstan is restricted: in a study cited in the Special Rapporteur’s report, 40% of women interviewed had been denied the right to work or study outside the home.[82]

While media freedom is greater in Kyrgyzstan than in other countries in Central Asia, freedom of expression is not always respected, and some journalists have faced intimidation and attack.[83] According to one of the shadow reports submitted to the CEDAW committee in 2008, media monitoring revealed the low visibility of women in the Kyrgyz media. Where women did feature, it was predominantly as homemakers, or in the context of social problems, such as drug abuse and sex work.[84]

Freedom of association and assembly is generally respected in Kyrgyzstan, and there is a very active NGO sector,[85] including many groups working on women’s rights and / or gender issues.

Following the ouster of President Kurmanbek Bakiyev in April 2010, Roza Otunbaeva became the country’s (and the region’s) first female president.[86] She will remain in power until presidential elections in 2011.[87] A 30% quota introduced by former President Bakiyev has increased the number of women in the Kyrgyzstan parliament, and as of early 2011, there were 28 women deputies (out of 120 – 23.3%).[88] However, the coalition government formed in late 2010 does not contain a single woman minister.[89] In contrast to the low numbers of women in positions of authority in government, women have found it much easier to obtain (or retain) senior positions in the higher education sector, and in civil society.[90] Women’s rights NGOs in Kyrgyzstan are extremely active and vocal on a wide range of issues, including: domestic violence, bride abduction and trafficking; encouraging women to take a more active role in political life; and micro-credit provision.[91] The women’s movement was prominent in campaigns to encourage the adoption of legislation on domestic violence, and to reject the attempts made by lawmakers to decriminalise polygamy.[92] There are also many prominent women leaders among other civil society groups.[93]

Women in Kyrgyzstan are entitled to 126 days paid maternity leave, and discrimination in employment on the basis of gender is outlawed under the Labour Code.[94] According to a 2008 report, unemployment rates are higher among women in the Kyrgyz Republic than among men, and more than half of the female labour force is engaged in agriculture (meaning they do not benefit from this legislation).[95] In addition, beyond agriculture, there is pronounced gender segregation in the labour market, with women concentrated in lower-paying health, education, and social services.[96]

Same-sex relationships are legal in Kyrgyzstan for men and women.[97] The Special Rapporteur and Human Rights Watch report that members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community face violence, harassment, and discrimination from their families, wider society, and on occasion, the police.[98]

References

  1. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) World Factbook: Kyrgyzstan, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kg.html (accessed 18 January 2011)
  2. CIA (2010); Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Kyrgyzstan, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7856 (accessed 18 January 2011); UN Human Rights Council (2010) ‘Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Rashida Manjoo. Addendum: Mission to Kyrgyzstan’, A/HRC/14/22/Add.2, UN Human Rights Council, Geneva, p.5 pp.4-5
  3. World Bank (n.d.) Data: Kyrgyz Republic, http://data.worldbank.org/country/kyrgyz-republic (accessed 18 January 2011)
  4. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.5
  5. CIA (2010)
  6. UN Central Emergency Response Fund (2010) ‘CERF allocates $9.1 million for victims of ethnic conflict in Kyrgyzstan’, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Central Emergency Response Fund, http://ochaonline.un.org/CERFaroundtheWorld/Kyrgyzstan2010/tabid/6639/language/en-US/Default.aspx (accessed 2 February 2011)
  7. CIA (2010)
  8. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.7
  9. Government of the Kyrgyz Republic (2010) ‘КОНСТИТУЦИЯ КЫРГЫЗСКОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ (Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic)’, http://www.gov.kg/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=56&Itemid=37 (accessed 18 January 2011)
  10. United Nations Treaty Collection (UNTC) (n.d): Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women, countries ratified. CEDAW: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8&chapter=4&lang=en (accessed 18 January 2011); Optional Protocol: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8-b&chapter=4&lang=en (accessed 18 January 2011)
  11. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.15
  12. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.17
  13. United Nations Development Programme (2011) Human Development Report 2011, available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed 29 February 2012) p.129
  14. United Nations Development Programme (2011) p.141
  15. World Economic Forum (2011) The Global Gender Gap Report 2011, available at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2011.pdf (accessed 2 March 2012)
  16. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.14; National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic / UNICEF (2007) ‘Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006, Kyrgyz Republic. Final Report’, National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic / UNICEF, Bishkek. http://www.un.org.kg/en/publications/article/5-Publications/3831-multiple-indicator-cluster-surveykyrgyz-republic-2006 (accessed 18 January 2011), p.64; Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2007), Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Kyrgyzstan, Third Periodic Report of States Parties, CEDAW/C/KGZ/3, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws42.htm (accessed 18 January 2011) , pp.18, 60
  17. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Kyrgyzstan (2006), available at http://www.childinfo.org/files/MICS3_Kyrgyzstan_FinalReport_2005-06_Eng.pdf (accessed 19 March 2012)
  18. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2008) World Marriage Data 2008, available at http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WMD2008/Main.html (accessed 10 October 2010)
  19. National Statistics Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic / UNICEF (2007) State of the World’s Children: the Double Dividend of Gender Equality, New York: UNICEF http://www.unicef.org/sowc07/docs/sowc07.pdf, p.64
  20. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.14
  21. CEDAW (2007), p.60
  22. Freedom House (2010)
  23. Human Rights Watch (2006) ‘Reconciled to violence: state failure to stop domestic abuse and abduction of women in Kyrgyzstan’, Human Rights Watch, New York. Available at http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2006/09/26/reconciled-violence (accessed 3 February 2011). p.96
  24. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.13
  25. National Statistics Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic / UNICEF (2007), p.65
  26. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.14
  27. Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) (2007) ‘Kyrgyz Lawmakers Reject Decriminalizing Polygamy’, 26 March 2007, http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1075507.html (accessed 3 February 2011)
  28. CEDAW (2007), p.13-14, 60
  29. Asian Development Bank (2005) ‘The Kyrgyz Republic. A gendered transition: Soviet legacies and new risks. Country Gender Assessment’, East and Central Asia Regional Department and Regional and Sustainable Development Department, Asian Development Bank, Manila, p.9
  30. CEDAW (2007), p.59
  31. CEDAW (2007), p.21; Council of NGOs (2008) ‘Alternative report to the Committee on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women’, Council of NGOs, Bishkek, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws42.htm (accessed 18 January 2011), p.41; Asian Development Bank (2005), p.36
  32. Asian Development Bank (2005), p.37
  33. Asian Development Bank (2005), p.37; author’s own observations.
  34. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.8
  35. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.8
  36. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.16
  37. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.15
  38. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.8
  39. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.8
  40. National Statistics Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic / UNICEF (2007), p.17
  41. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.18
  42. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.18
  43. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.20
  44. US Department of State (2010); author’s observation.
  45. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.16
  46. US Department of State (2010)
  47. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.12
  48. UN Human Rights Council (2010), pp.9, 16; Human Rights Watch (2006), p.87
  49. Human Rights Watch (2006), p.87
  50. Human Rights Watch (2006), pp.91-92
  51. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.9-10
  52. Human Rights Watch (2006), p.89
  53. UNFPA (n.d.) ‘Bride Kidnapping: an information note’, UNFPA, Bishkek pp.1, 3
  54. UN Human Rights Council (2010), pp.16, 19; Council of NGOs (2008), pp.12-13
  55. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.9
  56. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.9. See also Human Rights Watch (2006), pp.88-89
  57. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.16; US Department of State (2010)
  58. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.10
  59. US Department of State (2010)
  60. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) (2010) State of the World’s Population 2010. From conflict and crisis to renewal: generations of change, UNFPA, New York, p.iv
  61. US Department of State (2010)
  62. National Statistics Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic / UNICEF (2007), p.51
  63. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.7; Asian Development Bank (2005), p.48
  64. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2007)’World abortion policies’, data downloaded from http://www.devinfo.info/genderinfo/ (accessed 21 October 2010)
  65. National Statistics Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic / UNICEF (2007), p.30
  66. UNICEF (2007), p.111
  67. UNFPA (2010), p.96 (no data source given).
  68. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.6
  69. Central Intelligence Agency (2012) The World Fact Book: Sex Ratio, available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2018.html (accessed 29 February 2012)
  70. Asian Development Bank (2005), p.36
  71. Asian Development Bank (2005), p.36
  72. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), International Land Coalition(ILC) (2004), ‘Rural Women’s Access to Land and Property in Selected Countries: Progress Towards Achieving the Aims of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women’, FAO Gender and Population Division, IFAD Technical Advisory Division, and ILC, Rome. http://www.landcoalition.org/pdf/cedawrpt.pdf (accessed 4 December 2010), p.46; CEDAW (2007), p.21
  73. CEDAW (2007), p.58
  74. CEDAW (2007), p.59
  75. CEDAW (2007), p.21; Asian Development Bank (2005), p.36
  76. CEDAW (2007), p.21
  77. CEDAW (2007), p.58
  78. Asian Development Bank (2005), p.32
  79. CEDAW (2007), p.54
  80. CEDAW (2007), p.54
  81. Freedom House (2010)
  82. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.8
  83. US Department of State (2010); Freedom House (2010)
  84. Council of NGOs (2008), p.12
  85. Freedom House (2010)
  86. Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) (2010) ‘Otunbaeva Inaugurated As Kyrgyz President’, 3 July 2010, http://www.rferl.org/content/Otunbaeva_Inaugurated_As_Kyrgyz_President_/2089698.html (accessed 3 February 2011)
  87. RFE/RL (2010)
  88. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.5; Freedom House (2010); Inter-parliamentary Union (n.d.) ‘KYRGYZSTAN: Jogorku Kenesh (Supreme Council)’, http://www.ipu.org/parline-e/reports/2174_A.htm (accessed 18 January 2011)
  89. www.daylife.com (2011)
  90. Freedom House (2010)
  91. Author’s observations and interviews with women’s rights activists, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, July 2009 – April 2010. See also Association of Civil Society Support Centers (ACSSC) (2006) Review of the history of establishment and development of the NGO sector in the Kyrgyz Republic, ACSSC
  92. Author’s observations and interviews with women’s rights activists, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, July 2009 – April 2010.
  93. ACSSC (2006)
  94. International Labour Organization (ILO) (2009) Database of Conditions of Work and Employment Laws, http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/travmain.home ; CEDAW (2007), p.38
  95. Rokicka, Magdalena (2008) ‘Gender gap in the CIS region’, CASE Network Studies and Analyses no.376/2008, CASE, Warsaw, Bishkek, Kyiv, Chisinau, Minsk, pp.25, 33
  96. UN Human Rights Council (2010), p.6
  97. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA), (n.d.), country profile: Kyrgyzstan, http://ilga.org/ilga/en/countries/KYRGYZSTAN/Articles (accessed 18 January 2011)
  98. UN Human Rights Council (2010), pp.8, 11; Human Rights Watch (2010); US Department of State (2010)

The Women, Business and the Law

Where are laws equal for men and women? 

The Women, Business and the Law report presents indicators based on laws and regulations affecting women's prospects as entrepreneurs and employees. Several of these indicators draw on the Gender Law Library, a collection of over 2,000 legal provisions impacting women's economic status. This report does not seek to judge or rank countries, but to provide information to inform discussions about women’s economic rights.  Women, Business and the Law provides data covering 6 areas: accessing institutions,using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court. Read more about the methodology.

For detailed information on Kyrgyzstan, please visit the Women, Business and the Law Kyrgyzstan page.

Sources

The FAO Gender and Landrights Database

The FAO Gender and Landrights Database contains country level information on social, economic, political and cultural issues related to the gender
FAO logo.jpg
inequalities embedded in those rights. Disparity on land access

is one of the major causes for social and gender in rural areas, and it jeopardizes, as a consequence, rural food security as well as the wellbeing of individuals and families.

Six categories

The Database offers information on the 6 following Categories:

  • National legal frame
  • International treaties and conventions
  • Customary law
  • Land tenure and related Institutions
  • Civil society organizations • Selected Land Related Statistics

For detailed information information on Kyrgyzstan, please visit the report on in the FAO Gender and Landrights Database.

Sources

See Also


Article Information
Wikiprogress Wikichild Wikigender University Wikiprogress.Stat ProgBlog Latin America Network African Network eFrame