Gender Equality in Kuwait

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Kuwait
flag_Kuwait.png
Flag of Kuwait
Population (in Mil.) 3.25
Gross Domestic Product (In USD Billions - WB) 183.24
Sex Ratio (m/f) 1.43
Life Expectancy Ratio (f/m) 1.02739726
Fertility Rate 2.64
Estimated Earned Income (f/m) 0.58
Tertiary Enrolment Ratio (f/m) 21.9
Women in Parliament (in %) 6.2
INDICES
Human Development Index 54/187
Social Institutions and Gender Index - /86
Gender Inequality Index 54/186
Gender Equity Index 93/168
Women’s Economic Opportunity Index 76/128
Global Gender Gap Index - /68
More information on variables

Contents

In The News

Social Institutions

Under effective British control from 1899, Kuwait became independent in 1961.[1] Since then, Kuwait has been ruled by the Al-Sabah royal family, although there is also an elected legislature in place.[2] In 1990-91, the country was invaded by Iraq, causing considerable damage to the country’s infrastructure and the oil industry, on which the economy is dependent.[3] Kuwait is classed as a high income country by the World Bank.[4] The majority of Kuwaiti nationals are Muslim, mostly Sunni (approximately 70%).[5] A large proportion of the population however are foreign-born nationals, estimated at 45% in 2010.[6] Education and employment opportunities opened up for Kuwaiti women in the 1960s, but their participation in the political arena remained severely restricted until May 2005, when they were granted the right to vote and run for office for the first time.[7] As of 2009, there were four women in Kuwait’s parliament. In the 2012 elections, no women were elected. Women have considerably more freedom of movement and greater visibility in public life than is the case in some of the other Gulf states. However, the presence of a strong Islamist faction in Kuwait’s parliament since 1992 has led to the passing of several laws that reinforce gender segregation in society, and promote women’s roles as mothers over all other.[8] Article 29 of the Kuwait Constitution sets out the principle of equality and non-discrimination, but does not contain any specific protections against gender-based discrimination.[9] Kuwait ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1994, but with reservations on Article 9, paragraph 2 concerning citizenship rights; Article 7 regarding equal voting rights (subsequently withdrawn); and Article 16, paragraph 1(f ), which calls for equal rights on guardianship and adoption.[10] Kuwait has not yet ratified the Optional Protocol.[11]

Kuwait stands in 63rd place in the 2011 Human Development Index (out of 187 countries), with a score of 0.760, and has a Gender Inequality Index score of 0.229.[12] Kuwait is ranked 105th in the 2011 Global Gender Gap Index, with a value of 0.6322.[13]

Discriminatory Family Code

Under the Personal Status Act (1984), family matters are governed by Sharia law, but handled within the civil court system.[14] Sunni and Shiite Muslims have recourse to courts that adhere to their respective schools of Islam.[15]

The legal age of marriage in Kuwait is 15 years for women and 17 years for men.[16] Early marriage is increasingly rare, but for the most part marriage is still very much an arrangement between families (although marriages cannot be concluded without the consent of both spouses).[17] According to Sunni family law, women cannot freely choose their husbands; they must obtain prior approval from their families or guardians.[18] This is not the case for Shiite women, who can marry without their guardian’s consent once they have reached the age of maturity (25).[19] Up-to-date data is not available, but a 2004 United Nations report drawing on data from 1996 estimated that at that time, 5.4% of Kuwaiti girls between 15 and 19 years of age were married, divorced or widowed.[20] Sexual relations outside of marriage are illegal for women and men.[21] Both Sunni and Shia family laws permit polygamy.[22] Under Kuwaiti law, Muslim men may take up to four wives (provided they can support them financially), and are not legally required to obtain consent from existing wives before marrying subsequently, unless they intend to bring the new wife to live in the same house as the existing wife/wives.[23]

Kuwaiti women face discrimination in regard to parental authority. Sharia law views fathers as the natural guardians of children, whereas mothers are seen as the physical, but not legal, custodians.[24] In the event of divorce, Sunni family law gives mothers the right to custody of sons until they reach the age of 15 years and of daughters until they marry.[25] But under Shiite family law, women are only granted custody of girls up until the age of seven, and boys to the age of two.[26] If a woman has custody of her children, the father is legally obliged to provide her with financial support, but there are no penalties in place in the event that he fails to do so.[27] However, divorced women who choose to remarry during this period lose their custody rights.[28] Men have the right to repudiate their wives, i.e. divorce them unilaterally.[29] Women in Kuwait have the right to seek a divorce under certain circumstances, e.g. in cases of domestic violence, if the husband has been imprisoned, or if he has deserted her.[30] In cases where a husband has divorced his wife unilaterally, she is entitled to financial compensation.[31] Women cannot confer citizenship to children born to non-Kuwaiti fathers.[32] Sharia law provides for detailed and complex calculations of inheritance shares.[33] Women may inherit from their fathers, mothers, husbands or children and, under certain conditions, from other family members.[34] However, their share is generally smaller than that to which men are entitled, and in general, female heirs are entitled to inherit half that of male heirs.[35] Under Sunni family law, women are able to inherit physical property, whereas under Shiite family law, women can only inherit the value of that property.[36] Shia inheritance regulations are generally more egalitarian to women compared to Sunni regulations. It is not clear whether women’s inheritance rights are respected in practice.

Restricted Physical Integrity

Under the Kuwaiti Civil Status Code, married women are in theory protected from physical and psychological violence from their husbands.[37] But in reality, women are afforded little legal or practical protection in domestic violence cases, with the police and courts generally trying to resolve family disputes informally, and no shelters or other support services available to victims.[38] Lack of data makes it difficult to estimate the prevalence of violence against women in Kuwait: no statistics are collected, either by the government or NGOs, and few women report cases of domestic violence, out of fear or shame.[39] Rape is a criminal offence in Kuwait, but spousal rape is not recognised.[40] In contrast to the lack of attention given to physical and sexual assaults that occur within the home, rape and sexual assault committed outside of the home receive adequate responses from the police, and perpetrators found guilty face a prison sentence or the death penalty.[41] Sexual harassment in the workplace is not recognised as a specific crime; this is of particular concern in regard to domestic workers (see below).[42] So-called ‘honour’ killings do occur in Kuwait. Under the Penal Code, lower penalties are meted out if the (male) perpetrator kills his daughter, wife, sister or mother in a fit of rage, having discovered that she had committed an act of ‘zina’ (unlawful sexual relations).[43] Trafficking in persons is illegal in Kuwait, under the Penal Code.[44] A large number of migrant domestic workers (mainly women) enter the country each year legally, but there are reports that many are subjected to conditions of involuntary servitude by their employers.[45] They are at particular risk of sexual and physical abuse at the hands of their employees, and are not protected by employment legislation.[46] In addition, the Kuwaiti government has thus far appeared reluctant to prosecute Kuwaiti citizens found to have abused their domestic workers.[47] The Kuwait Union of Domestic Labor Offices provides some limited services to domestic workers, including legal support, and there is also a shelter in operation.[48] Female genital mutilation (FGM) is reportedly not practised in Kuwait. The legal situation in regard to FGM is unclear. Women in Kuwait have the right to obtain information about, and access to contraception, which is provided through government health clinics.[49] According to a 2010 UNFPA report, 52% of married women reported using some form of contraception.[50] Abortion is only legal in cases of foetal impairment, or if the mother’s life is in danger.[51] In all cases, the woman’s husband or male guardian has to give permission for the procedure to go ahead.[52]

Son Bias

Under-five mortality rates are low overall, and are slightly higher for boys than for girls.[53] No gender-disaggregated data is available for rates of malnutrition. Gender-disaggregated immunization rates are also not available, but according to UNICEF, immunization rates overall are very high (99%).[54] According to UNICEF, primary and secondary enrolment rates are higher for girls than for boys (secondary gross enrolment rates: boys 87%, girls 93%).[55] In addition, women make up the bulk of university students, although is partly because men are more likely to travel abroad to study.[56]

The figures above would not indicate that Kuwait is a country of concern in regard to son preference in access to education. The male/female sex ratio for the total population in 2012 is 1.43.[57] Analysis of sex ratio data across age groups shows elevated sex ratios amongst younger groups, providing evidence that Kuwait is a country of concern in relation to missing women. The elevated sex ratio for adults can be attributed to migration.

Restricted Resources and Entitlements

Women in Kuwait have the full legal right to own and manage land, property, income and assets.[58] The law also allows women over 21 to have access to bank loans and enter into financial contracts, without permission from their male guardian.[59] Law 2/2011 decreed that, divorced and widowed Kuwaiti women are now entitled to interest free housing loans, the same as Kuwaiti men. The UNDP Kuwait office reports that, despite women previously being concentrated in the public sector, there is now a growing number of women entrepreneurs which has been accompanied by a change in image of Kuwait women as successful entrepreneurs.[60]

Restricted Civil Liberties

There are no legal restrictions on women’s freedom of access to public space in Kuwait.[61] In October 2009, the Constitutional Court ruled that the 1962 law requiring married women to obtain their husband’s permission in order to apply for a passport was unconstitutional.[62] However, social norms dictate that women obtain permission from their family or husband before going out at night or travelling abroad.[63] It is also considered socially unacceptable for an unmarried woman (or an unmarried man) to live alone.[64]

There are reports that freedom of expression is at times not respected in Kuwait, and there are also some restrictions in place on freedom of association and assembly.[65] This limits the autonomy and activities of NGOs, including those working on women’s rights, which face considerable logistical obstacles to registration, as well as scrutiny of their operations.[66] That said, women’s rights activists were able to mount large-scale demonstrations in support of changes to the country’s electoral law, to enable women to vote.[67] In addition, according to Al-Mughni, women’s rights issues are discussed in the media in Kuwait, with a wide range of liberal and conservative views represented.[68]

Women only gained the right to vote and stand for election in Kuwait in 2005.[69] 20 women stood for election to the National Assembly in 2009, of whom four were elected – the first women ever to sit in the Assembly.[70] There are now five women in the National Assembly, accounting for 7.7% of members, as well as three government ministers.[71] In 2012, no women were elected.[72] Despite – or perhaps because of – Kuwaiti women’s long exclusion from formal political life, the country has long had an active women’s movement, campaigning for women’s economic and political rights, and their access to educational and cultural opportunities.[73] This included a long campaign to push for a change in the electoral law.[74]

Pregnant women in Kuwait are entitled to 70 days’ paid maternity leave, and under the 2010 Labour Act, are protected from discrimination on the basis of gender in employment, including in regard to pay.[75] With the exception of a few professions, women are legally forbidden from working at night, as well as from working in the industrial sector, or working in occupations deemed hazardous to their health.[76] However, they have been able to serve in the army since 1999, and in the police force since 2009.[77] In addition, a husband can prohibit his wife from working if he deems that work would negatively affect the family’s interests.[78] Overall, 44% (nationals and non-nationals) of working age women were employed in 2007.[79]

References

  1. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) World Factbook: Kuwait, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ku.html (accessed 24 February 2011); Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Kuwait, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7855 (accessed 24 February 2011)
  2. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) World Factbook: Kuwait, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ku.html (accessed 24 February 2011)
  3. Reference 2; Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Kuwait, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7855 (accessed 24 February 2011)
  4. World Bank (n.d.) Data: Kuwait, http://data.worldbank.org/country/kuwait (accessed 24 February 2011)
  5. Al-Mughni, Haya (2010) ‘Kuwait’, in Sanja Kelly and Julia Breslin, eds., (2010) Women’s Rights in the Middle East and North Africa, New York, NY: Freedom House; Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, p.229; Reference 2
  6. Reference 2
  7. Al-Mughni, Haya (2010) ‘Kuwait’, in Sanja Kelly and Julia Breslin, eds., (2010) Women’s Rights in the Middle East and North Africa, New York, NY: Freedom House; Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield; Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Kuwait, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7855 (accessed 24 February 2011)
  8. Al-Mughni, Haya (2010) ‘Kuwait’, in Sanja Kelly and Julia Breslin, eds., (2010) Women’s Rights in the Middle East and North Africa, New York, NY: Freedom House; Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, p.225
  9. United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2003) ‘INTEGRATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND THE GENDER PERSPECTIVE VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52 Addendum 1 International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003’, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, ECOSOC, New York , p.146; Reference 8, p.226
  10. United Nations Treaty Collection (UNTC) (n.d): Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women, countries ratified. - CEDAW: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8&chapter=4&lang=en (accessed 24 February 2011); - Optional Protocol: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8-b&chapter=4&lang=en (accessed 24 February 2011); Reference 8, p.228
  11. Reference 10
  12. United Nations Development Programme (2011) Human Development Report 2011, available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf, accessed 29 February 2012 p.128, p.140
  13. World Economic Forum (2011) The Global Gender Gap Report 2011, available at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2011.pdf, accessed 2 March 2012. p.11
  14. Reference 8, p.227; CEDAW (2010) ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined third and fourth periodic report of States parties Kuwait’, CEDAW/C/KWT/3-4, CEDAW, New York. Available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws50.htm (accessed 24 February 2011) , p.27
  15. Reference 8, p.
  16. United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2003) ‘INTEGRATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND THE GENDER PERSPECTIVE VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52 Addendum 1 International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003’, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, ECOSOC, New York , p.147; CEDAW (2010) ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined third and fourth periodic report of States parties Kuwait’, CEDAW/C/KWT/3-4, CEDAW, New York. Available at:http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws50.htm (accessed 24 February 2011), p.28
  17. Reference 8, p.232; CEDAW (2010) ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined third and fourth periodic report of States parties Kuwait’, CEDAW/C/KWT/3-4, CEDAW, New York. Available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws50.htm (accessed 24 February 2011) , p.27
  18. Reference 8, p.232
  19. Reference 8, p.232
  20. United Nations (2004), World Fertility Report 2003, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York, NY, p.186
  21. Reference 8, p.228
  22. Reference 8, p.231
  23. Reference 8, p.231
  24. Uhlman, K. (2004) ‘Overview of Shari’a and Prevalent Customs in Islamic Societies: Divorce and Child Custody’, Expert Law, http://www.expertlaw.com/library/family_law/islamic_custody.html (accessed 24 February 2011).
  25. Reference 8, p.231
  26. Reference 8, p.231
  27. Reference 8, p.243
  28. Reference 8, p.231
  29. Reference 8, p.231
  30. CEDAW (2010) ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined third and fourth periodic report of States parties Kuwait’, CEDAW/C/KWT/3-4, CEDAW, New York. Available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws50.htm (accessed 24 February 2011) , p.28; Reference 8, pp. 231-232
  31. CEDAW (2010) ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined third and fourth periodic report of States parties Kuwait’, CEDAW/C/KWT/3-4, CEDAW, New York. Available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws50.htm (accessed 24 February 2011) , p.28; Reference 8, pp. 231-232
  32. Reference 8, p.226; CEDAW (2010) ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined third and fourth periodic report of States parties Kuwait’, CEDAW/C/KWT/3-4, CEDAW, New York. Available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws50.htm (accessed 24 February 2011) , p.20
  33. The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) (2005) ‘Islam, land & property research series’, Paper 6: Islamic inheritance laws and systems, Nairobi, Kenya. Available at www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/3546_3490_ILP%206.doc (accessed 10 February 2011) , p.11
  34. Reference 33 p.11
  35. Reference 33 p.11; Reference 8, p.234
  36. Reference 8, p.230
  37. United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2003) ‘INTEGRATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND THE GENDER PERSPECTIVE VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52 Addendum 1 International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003’, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, ECOSOC, New York , p.146
  38. Reference 37, P.147; Reference 8, P.233
  39. Reference 8, P.233
  40. Reference 37, Pp.146, 147
  41. Reference 8, P.233
  42. Reference 8, P.237
  43. Reference 37, P.147; Reference 8, P.227
  44. Reference 37, p.146
  45. Reference 2
  46. Amnesty International (2010) Amnesty International Report 2009, State of the World’s Human Rights, London: Amnesty International. http://thereport.amnesty.org/sites/default/files/AIR2010_EN.pdf (accessed 8 November 2010), p.202; Reference 37, p.147; Reference 2
  47. Reference 2
  48. Reference 8, p.233
  49. Reference 8, p.241
  50. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) (2010) State of the World’s Population 2010. From conflict and crisis to renewal: generations of change, UNFPA, New York , p.96
  51. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2007)’World abortion policies’, data downloaded from http://www.devinfo.info/genderinfo/ (accessed 21 October 2010).
  52. Reference 8, p.242
  53. Reference 50, p.102
  54. UNICEF (2007) State of the World’s Children : the Double Dividend of Gender Equality, New York: UNICEF http://www.unicef.org/sowc07/docs/sowc07.pdf, p.111
  55. Reference 54, p.119
  56. Reference 8, p.234
  57. Central Intelligence Agency (2012) The World Fact Book: Sex Ratio, available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2018.html, accessed 14 March 2012.
  58. Reference 8, p.234; CEDAW (2010) ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined third and fourth periodic report of States parties Kuwait’, CEDAW/C/KWT/3-4, CEDAW, New York. Available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws50.htm (accessed 24 February 2011), p.27; Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2003) ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined initial and second periodic reports of States parties’, Kuwait, CEDAW/C/KWT/1-2, CEDAW, New York, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws30.htm (accessed 24 February 2011), p.78
  59. Reference 8, p.234; Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2003) ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined initial and second periodic reports of States parties’, Kuwait, CEDAW/C/KWT/1-2, CEDAW, New York, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws30.htm (accessed 24 February 2011), p.80
  60. UNDP (2010) Human Development Report 2010: Kuwait, online edition, http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/KWT.html (accessed 24 February 2011)
  61. Reference 8, p.229
  62. Amnesty International (2010) Amnesty International Report 2009, State of the World’s Human Rights, London: Amnesty International. http://thereport.amnesty.org/sites/default/files/AIR2010_EN.pdf (accessed 8 November 2010), p.202; Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Kuwait, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7855 (accessed 24 February 2011)
  63. Reference 8, p.230
  64. Reference 8, p.242
  65. Amnesty International (2010) Amnesty International Report 2009, State of the World’s Human Rights, London: Amnesty International. http://thereport.amnesty.org/sites/default/files/AIR2010_EN.pdf (accessed 8 November 2010), pp.201-202; Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Kuwait, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7855 (accessed 24 February 2011)
  66. Reference 8, pp.225, 240; Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Kuwait, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7855 (accessed 24 February 2011)
  67. Reference 8, p.238
  68. Reference 8, p.239
  69. Reference 54, p.78; , CEDAW (2010) ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined third and fourth periodic report of States parties Kuwait’, CEDAW/C/KWT/3-4, CEDAW, New York. Available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws50.htm (accessed 24 February 2011) pp.16, 19; Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Kuwait, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7855 (accessed 24 February 2011)
  70. Amnesty International (2010) Amnesty International Report 2009, State of the World’s Human Rights, London: Amnesty International. http://thereport.amnesty.org/sites/default/files/AIR2010_EN.pdf (accessed 8 November 2010), p.201; Reference 8, p.224; Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Kuwait, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7855 (accessed 24 February 2011)
  71. Inter-Parliamentary Union (n.d.) ‘KUWAIT Majles Al-Ommah (National Assembly)’, http://www.ipu.org/parline-e/reports/2171_A.htm (accessed 24 February 2011); Reference 8, p.224
  72. BBC (2012) Kuwait election: Islamist-led opposition makes gains, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-16869108 (accessed 18 March 2012)
  73. Reference 8, p.223
  74. Reference 8, p.224
  75. International Labour Organization (ILO) (2009) Database of Conditions of Work and Employment Laws, http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/travmain.home (accessed 24 February 2011); CEDAW (2010) ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined third and fourth periodic report of States parties Kuwait’, CEDAW/C/KWT/3-4, CEDAW, New York. Available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws50.htm (accessed 24 February 2011) , p.15
  76. Reference 37, p.147; Reference 8, p.236
  77. Sharaf, Nihal (n.d.) ‘Kuwaiti women make it in police force’, Arab Times Online, http://www.arabtimesonline.com/NewsDetails/tabid/96/smid/414/ArticleID/150098/t/Kuwaiti-women-make-it-in-police-force/Default.aspx (accessed 23 March 2011); Arabic News.com (1999) ‘Kuwait authorizes women to join army’, Arabic News.com, 8 July 1999, http://www.arabicnews.com/ansub/Daily/Day/990708/1999070849.html (accessed 23 March 2011)
  78. Reference 8, p.230
  79. Reference 8, p.236

The Women, Business and the Law

Where are laws equal for men and women? 

The Women, Business and the Law report presents indicators based on laws and regulations affecting women's prospects as entrepreneurs and employees. Several of these indicators draw on the Gender Law Library, a collection of over 2,000 legal provisions impacting women's economic status. This report does not seek to judge or rank countries, but to provide information to inform discussions about women’s economic rights. Women, Business and the Law provides data covering 6 areas: accessing institutions,using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court. Read more about the methodology.

For detailed information on Kuwait, please visit the Women, Business and
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