Gender Equality in Iran

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Iran
flag_Iran.png
Flag of Iran
Population (in Mil.) 76.42
Gross Domestic Product (In USD Billions - WB) 502.73
Sex Ratio (m/f) 1.03
Life Expectancy Ratio (f/m) 1.041666667
Fertility Rate 1.88
Estimated Earned Income (f/m) 0.21
Tertiary Enrolment Ratio (f/m) 42.8
Women in Parliament (in %) 3.1
INDICES
Human Development Index 76/187
Social Institutions and Gender Index /86
Gender Inequality Index 76/186
Gender Equity Index 119/168
Women’s Economic Opportunity Index 117/128
Global Gender Gap Index /68
More information on variables

Social Institutions

Iran is a theocratic republic and has been since 1979.[1] The country has experienced two revolutions in the 20th century (1906, 1979), in both of which freedom, democracy and rule of law were the main goals. Between 1980 and 1988, the country was at war with Iraq, during which time a million people are thought to have died[2]. As an Islamic state, the entire executive and legal system is determined by Sharia law, with particular implications for women’s status and legal rights.[3] The majority of the population are Persian Shiites, but there is also a large Azeri minority, as well as other smaller ethnic and religious minority groups.[4] Iran is classed as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank.[5] Women activists played a significant role in the Iranian Revolution, but following it, with changes to the civil and penal codes and enforced segregation and public veiling, women lost the limited equal rights that they had enjoyed under the previous regime.[6] In addition, high rates of unemployment among women[7] mean that for many women, their economic autonomy is limited. However, despite considerable restrictions on their civil liberties, women in Iran are active and visible in the public sphere, particularly in education and civil society, and stereotypes regarding acceptable gender roles are being challenged.[8] In addition, a study by Moghadam notes that women’s human rights in Iran have advanced, especially in regard to family, religion and community,[9] partly as a result of urbanisation, and of the high numbers of women entering education. There is an active and confrontational women’s movement, which contains women working to improve women’s rights within the framework of the existing Islamic regime, as well as those calling for secular rights.[10] As a result of their activities, such women are frequently in considerable danger and risk of persecution and arrest.[11] Many young women were among those active – and arrested – during large scale demonstrations in 2009, following disputed elections.[12] The Iranian Constitution calls for gender equality before the law at Article 20, although this is negated by the enforcement of discriminatory civil and criminal laws that subordinate women.[13] Iran has not signed or ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), on the grounds that to do so would contradict Islamic law.[14] The Centre for Women’s Affairs and Family coordinates government policy in relation to improving women’s status in society.[15] Iran is ranked 88th in the 2011 Human Development Index (out of 187 countries), with a score of 0.707, and has a Gender Inequality Index value of 0.485 placing it at 92 out of 146 countries.[16] Iran is at 125th place in the 2011 Global Gender Gap index, with a score of 0.5894.[17]

Discriminatory Family Code

Under Iran’s civil code, all women are considered to be under the guardianship of their father, husband, or another designated male relative.[18] Following the rescinding of the pre-revolutionary Family Protection Law, no new family code was introduced.[19] For the Muslim majority, matters relating to personal status and the family are now regulated based on Shi‘a interpretations of the Sharia, although the old family law still acts as a practical framework for judges to address such issues.[20] For those belonging to the other three recognised religious groups – Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians – personal status is governed by their own sectarian laws.[21] The legal age of marriage is 13 years for girls and 15 years for boys, but fathers have the right to apply for permission to the courts to marry their children earlier.[22] Early marriages that take place without official permission can result in imprisonment.[23] According to government data from 2006 held by the United Nations, in that year, 16.8% of girls in Iran between 15 and 19 years of age were married, divorced or widowed, compared to just 2.1% of boys in the same age bracket.[24] The consent of both spouses is needed for a marriage to be valid; however, in some rural areas, forced marriages do occur, particularly involving very young girls, or widows.[25] In addition, for her first marriage, a woman must have the consent of her male guardian.[26] Muslim women are not allowed to marry non-Muslim men, although the reverse does not apply.[27] Mahr (marriage gift) form part of the marriage contract, and there is legislation in place to determine the amount to be paid.[28] Polygamy is legal, following provisions in Shi‘a interpretations of the Sharia that allow Muslim men to take up to four wives.[29] It is unclear whether there are any conditions that a man must fulfil before taking another wife. However, according to a recent report published by Freedom House, the number of polygamous marriages is very low.[30] Under the Family Code, men also have the right to engage in sexual relationships outside of marriage within ‘sigheh’ (temporary) marriages, while for women, adultery is a criminal offence that can result in the death penalty.[31] Under Article 1105 of the civil code, the husband is designated as the exclusive head of the family; in his absence, guardianship of children falls to his family, rather than to the mother.[32] In the event of divorce, recent legal amendments automatically grant mothers physical custody of children until the age of seven, unless the mother remarries, in which case she loses this right.[33] Previously, mothers could maintain custody of sons only until the age of two.[34] Changes to the law made in 2002 mean that men can no longer repudiate (divorce unilaterally) their wives; the law introduced restrictions on both men’s and women’s right to divorce, and men who divorce their wives without going through the official channels can now face up to a year’s imprisonment.[35] In practice, it remains much harder for a woman to obtain a divorce; even if she is prepared to undergo a ‘khula’ divorce (which means making a financial payment to her husband), she still needs to obtain her husband’s consent to the divorce.[36] It appears that the divorce rate in Iran is high.[37] Poverty rates among women-headed households are high in Iran, and recent government policy has aimed at improving the welfare of such families.[38] Women cannot pass Iranian citizenship on to their children, in the event that the father is not an Iranian citizen.[39] Shi‘a interpretations of the Sharia provide for detailed and complex calculations of inheritance shares.[40] Women may inherit from their father, mother, husband or children and, under certain conditions, from other family members.[41] However, their share is generally smaller than that to which men are entitled.[42] Daughters, for example, typically inherit half as much as sons, and a widow’s inheritance entitlement is dependent on whether or not the couple have children.[43] A change to the law in 2009 means that widows are now able to inherit land from their husbands; previous to this, they could only inherit moveable property.[44] In practice, women are often pressured into forgoing their inheritance, either to keep property within the family, or to enable male relatives to control the selling or division of inherited assets.[45]

Restricted Physical Integrity

There is no specific law criminalising domestic violence in Iran.[46] There is no data available as to the prevalence of domestic violence, which is treated as a private matter.[47] Those women who do turn to the police for help are treated, in the words of a recent report, ‘no differently from those who are attacked by a stranger’, and must provide witnesses and medical reports to support their allegations.[48] As of 2003, there were some limited state support services in place for victims of domestic violence in place – including a crisis centre and a proposed helpline – but it is unclear if these are still functioning.[49] There are no shelters available for abused women.[50]

Rape is not recognised as a distinct offence under the Iranian penal code, but rather falls under the penal code’s definition of adultery, as sexual intercourse between a man and a woman ‘forbidden to each other’.[51] The law does not recognise the concept of spousal rape.[52] Amnesty International reports that some of those arrested following the demonstrations in 2009 – women and men – were raped and subjected to other forms of sexual assault while in detention.[53] Sexual harassment is illegal under the penal code.[54]

According to a 2010 report published by Women Living Under Muslim Laws (WLUML), ‘honour’-related violence is also pervasive in Iran.[55] This often takes the form of forced self-immolation, whereby women are forced by other family members to set themselves ablaze, and the death is then passed off as suicide.[56] Both men and women convicted of adultery can be sentenced to death by stoning.[57] In practice, convictions are rare, but women are disproportionately affected.[58] Iran is a source, transit and destination country for women, men and children trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labour, but according to a 2003 UN report, the issue is an ‘invisible problem’.[59] The CIA World Factobook reports that the government has done little to address the issue, and that some aspects of Iranian law and policy hinder efforts to do so (e.g. punishment of victims, and legal obstacles to punishing offenders).[60]

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in Iran under the penal code.[61] FGM is practised in certain areas of Iran, principally in Iranian Kurdistan, but it is not thought to be widespread.[62] Women in Iran have the right to use contraception, and provision of services is said to be of an adequate standard.[63] Data included in a 2010 report from UNFPA would indicate a high level of contraceptive prevalence, with 79% of sexually active women reporting that they used some form of contraception (including so-called ‘traditional’ methods).[64] Abortion is only legal in cases where the mother’s life is in danger.[65] Women need written permission from their husband or male guardian before undergoing major surgical operations.[66]

Son Bias

According to UNFPA and Amnesty International, infant mortality rates are higher for girls than for boys in Iran, although estimated data from the CIA World Factobook would indicate that mortality rates are virtually equal for girls and boys.[67] A 2007 UNICEF report states that gross enrolment rates at primary level are higher for girls than for boys (108% as opposed to 98%), while at secondary level, the reverse is true (84% for boys and 79% for girls).[68] At tertiary level, a 2007 report by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) estimated that 70% of students entering university are now female.[69] The figure above may indicate some son preference in regard to early childhood care, as well as in access to secondary education. The male/female sex ratio for the total population in 2012 is 1.03.[70] Analysis of sex ratios across age groups shows elevated juvenile sex ratios, providing evidence that Iran is a country of concern for missing women.

Restricted Resource and Entitlement

There are no legal restrictions on women’s access to land or access to property other than land in Iran.[71] Married women retain the right to manage their own property, and in the event of divorce, the wife is able to retain all the property and other assets that she brought with her when she married.[72] In practice, in many households, men retain day-to-day control over the family’s income and assets.[73] There is no evidence that women experience legal discrimination with respect to access to bank loans. There is no information about women’s access to bank loans in credit in practice. However, in some rural areas, a government loan scheme providing credit for agricultural and handicraft activities targets female-headed households.[74] From 1994 to 2005, the number of women using these loans decreased from 6,160 in 1994 to 3,103 in 2004, but the amount of these loans increased by a 6.94%.[75] The provision of a government loan scheme suggests that women experience barriers in accessing loans through commercial banks.

Restricted Civil Liberties

Iranian women face legal restrictions on their freedom of movement outside the country, as they must obtain permission from their husband or a male relative in order to obtain a passport.[76] Women also need permission from their male guardian to study abroad, and married women must live in a residence chosen for them by their husband.[77]

Freedom of expression and freedom of assembly and association are severely restricted in Iran.[78] This has affected the capacity of women’s rights activists to organise and speak out on issues relevant to gender equality.[79]

Women in Iran have the same voting rights as men, and can stand for election to the parliament.[80] There are eight women in the Islamic Parliament of Iran (out of 290 members – 2.76%).[81] According to data from the 2000 World Values Survey included in a 2007 UNICEF report, over half of women questioned in Iran said they thought that men made better political leaders than women.[82] In addition, women standing for office face practical restrictions imposed by enforced gender segregation, meaning they cannot meet freely with male voters, or hold mix-sex campaign events.[83] That said, there are signs that attitudes towards women’s political involvement are changing, with presidential candidates in the 2009 elections actively courting women voters, and the appointment in 2009 of Marzieh Vahid-Dastjerdi as Minister for Health (the first woman to enter the Iranian cabinet).[84] But overall women, remain under-represented in positions of leadership in Iran, and in fact are legally prevented from standing for president, or occupying positions in the judiciary that would entail their casting a verdict.[85] There is an active and vocal women’s rights movement in Iran, centred recently around the ‘One Million Signatures’ campaign to end legal discrimination against women.[86] Members of this, and the Campaign for Equality, have been harassed, detained, prosecuted, and banned from travelling.[87] But despite operating under such repressive conditions, the women’s rights movement has been effective in mobilising public opinion in support of changes to legislation and government policy in favour of women.[88] Women’s rights groups also provide some assistance to victims of domestic violence.[89]

Pregnant women in Iran are able to take up to 90 days’ paid maternity leave, extended to four months if they are breastfeeding, and labour legislation decrees that women should receive equal pay for equal work.[90] In practice, this latter requirement is often not enforced.[91] In addition, beyond this, there are no specific laws relating to gender discrimination in the workplace.[92] The right of married women to work is restricted under the civil code, which states that husbands have the right to prevent their wives from engaging in work or an occupation that he deems to be incompatible with her family responsibilities.[93] Overall, women’s economic activity is much lower than that of men’s in Iran, and does not reflect their strong presence in education, the arts, and activism.[94] This is in part the result of prejudice on the part of employers and society more widely, that give priority to hiring men over women.[95] Same-sex relationships are illegal in Iran for women and men.[96] In cases of male homosexuality, the prescribed punishment is the death penalty, while for women, it is flogging.[97] The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA) has logged numerous cases of members of the LGBT community being subjected to violence, persecution and discrimination.[98]

References

  1. Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Iran, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7842 (accessed 14 February 2011); Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) World Factbook: Iran, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html (accessed 14 February 2011)
  2. Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Iran, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7842 (accessed 14 February 2011); Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) World Factbook: Iran, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html (accessed 14 February 2011)
  3. Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Iran, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7842 (accessed 14 February 2011); United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2003) ‘INTEGRATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND THE GENDER PERSPECTIVE VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52 Addendum 1 International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003’, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, ECOSOC, New York, p.187
  4. Tohidi, Nayereh (2010) ‘Iran’, in Sanja Kelly and Julia Breslin, eds., (2010) Women’s Rights in the Middle East and North Africa, New York, NY: Freedom House; Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, p.130
  5. World Bank (n.d.) Data: Iran, http://data.worldbank.org/country/iran-islamic-republic (accessed 14 February 2011)
  6. Reference 4, p.121; Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Iran, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7842 (accessed 14 February 2011)
  7. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (2007) ‘Iran: country gender profile’, JICA, Tehran, p.6
  8. Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Iran, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7842 (accessed 14 February 2011); REFERENCE 7, p.6; Reference 4, p.141
  9. Moghadam, V. (2003), Towards Gender Equality in the Arab/Middle East Region: Islam, Culture and Feminist Activism, Background Paper for HDR 2004, UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), New York, NY.. See also Reference 7, p.6
  10. Reference 4, p.144
  11. See Women’s Forum Against Fundamentalism in Iran (n.d.) http://www.wfafi.org/ (accessed 14 February 2011
  12. Amnesty International (2010) Amnesty International Report 2009, State of the World’s Human Rights, London: Amnesty International. http://thereport.amnesty.org/sites/default/files/AIR2010_EN.pdf (accessed 8 November 2010), p.173-174
  13. United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2003) ‘Integration Of The Human Rights Of Women And The Gender Perspective Violence Against Women Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52 Addendum 1 International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003’, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, ECOSOC, New York , p.187; Reference 4, p.124
  14. United Nations Treaty Collection (UNTC) (n.d): Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women, countries ratified. http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8&chapter=4&lang=en (accessed 14 February 2011) ; Greiff, Shaina (2010) ‘No Justice in Justications: Violence against Women in the Name of Culture, Religion, and Tradition’, The Global Campaign to Stop Killing and Stoning Women, March 2010, Women Living Under Muslim Laws (WLUML), London, p.35 Reference 7, p.11
  15. Reference 7, p.11
  16. United Nations Development Programme (2011) Human Development Report 2011, available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf, accessed 29 February 2011 p.128, p.140
  17. World Economic Forum (2011) The Global Gender Gap Report 2011, available at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2011.pdf, accessed 2 March 2012. p.11
  18. United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2003) ‘INTEGRATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND THE GENDER PERSPECTIVE VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52 Addendum 1 International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003’, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, ECOSOC, New York , p.187
  19. Reference 4, p.122
  20. Reference 4, p.122
  21. Reference 4, p.130
  22. Reference 18, P.186; Reference 4, P.131
  23. Reference 7, p.9
  24. United Nations Population Division / DESA (2008) World Marriage Data. Available to download at http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WMD2008/Main.html (accessed 11 October 2010).
  25. Reference 4, p.131
  26. Reference 4, p.131
  27. Reference 4, p.125
  28. Reference 7, p.9
  29. Reference 4, p.132
  30. Reference 4, p.132
  31. Greiff, Shaina (2010) ‘No Justice in Justications: Violence against Women in the Name of Culture, Religion, and Tradition’, The Global Campaign to Stop Killing and Stoning Women, March 2010, Women Living Under Muslim Laws (WLUML), London, p.20; Reference 4, p.126
  32. Reference 18, p.187; Reference 4, p.125
  33. Reference 4, p.133
  34. Reference 4, p.133
  35. Reference 18, p.186; Reference 7, P.10; Reference 4, p.132
  36. Reference 4, p.132
  37. Reference 7, P.9
  38. Reference 7, pp.8-9; Reference 4, p.149
  39. Reference 4, p.125
  40. The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) (2005) ‘Islam, land & property research series’, Paper 6: Islamic inheritance laws and systems, Nairobi, Kenya. Available at www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/3546_3490_ILP%206.doc (accessed 10 February 2011) , p.11
  41. Reference 40, P.11
  42. Reference 40, P.11
  43. See Reference 40, p.11; Reference 4, p.139
  44. Reference 4, p.139
  45. Reference 4, p.139
  46. Reference 4, p.136
  47. Reference 4, p.136
  48. Reference 4, p.136
  49. Reference 18, p.187
  50. Reference 4, p.136
  51. Reference 4, p.136
  52. Reference 4, p.136
  53. Reference 12, p.174
  54. Reference 4, p.136
  55. Greiff, Shaina (2010) ‘No Justice in Justications: Violence against Women in the Name of Culture, Religion, and Tradition’, The Global Campaign to Stop Killing and Stoning Women, March 2010, Women Living Under Muslim Laws (WLUML), London, p.14
  56. Reference 55, p.14
  57. Reference 4, p.134
  58. Reference 4, p.134
  59. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) World Factbook: Iran, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html (accessed 14 February 2011) ; Reference 18, p.188
  60. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) World Factbook: Iran, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html (accessed 14 February 2011)
  61. Reference 4, p.148
  62. Reference 4, p.148
  63. Reference 4, p.147
  64. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) (2010) State of the World’s Population 2010. From conflict and crisis to renewal: generations of change, UNFPA, New York, p.96 (no data source provided).
  65. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2007)’World abortion policies’, data downloaded from http://www.devinfo.info/genderinfo/ (accessed 21 October 2010).
  66. Reference 4, p.148
  67. Reference 64, p.102; Reference 12, p.172; Reference 60
  68. UNICEF (2007) State of the World’s Children : the Double Dividend of Gender Equality, New York: UNICEF http://www.unicef.org/sowc07/docs/sowc07.pdf p.119
  69. Reference 7, p.14
  70. Central Intelligence Agency (2012) The World Fact Book: Sex Ratio, available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2018.html, accessed 14 March 2012
  71. Reference 4, p.138.
  72. Reference 4, pp.133, 139
  73. Reference 4, p.139
  74. Reference 7, P.19
  75. Reference 7, P.19
  76. Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Iran, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7842 (accessed 14 February 2011); Reference 4, p.130
  77. Reference 18, pp. 186-187; Reference 4, p.131
  78. Reference 12, p.175; Human Rights Watch (2010)
  79. Reference 4, p.145
  80. Reference 4, p.145
  81. Inter-parliamentary Union (n.d.) ‘IRAN (ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF): Majles Shoraye Eslami (Islamic Parliament of Iran)’, http://www.ipu.org/parline-e/reports/2149_A.htm (accessed 14 February 2011)
  82. Reference 68, p.8
  83. Reference 4, p.143
  84. Freedom House (2010) Freedom in the World Country Reports: Iran, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7842 (accessed 14 February 2011)
  85. Reference 4, pp. 137, 142; Reference 7, pp.2, 7; Reference 86; Reference 18 p.187
  86. Reference 12, p.174
  87. Reference 12, p.174; Reference 4, pp.127-128
  88. Reference 4, pp.123, 141
  89. Reference 4, p.149
  90. International Labour Organization (ILO) (2009) Database of Conditions of Work and Employment Laws, http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/travmain.home; Reference 7, p.20
  91. Reference 4, p.137
  92. Reference 4, p.138
  93. Reference 18, p.187; Reference 4, p.139
  94. Reference 7, p.7; Reference 4, p.137
  95. Reference 4, p.137
  96. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA), (n.d.), country profile: Iran, Islamic Republic of, http://ilga.org/ilga/en/countries/IRAN,%20ISLAMIC%20REPUBLIC%20OF/Articles (accessed 14 February 2011)
  97. Reference 98; Reference 4, p.135
  98. See Reference 98

The Women, Business and the Law

Where are laws equal for men and women? 

The Women, Business and the Law report presents indicators based on laws and regulations affecting women's prospects as entrepreneurs and employees. Several of these indicators draw on the Gender Law Library, a collection of over 2,000 legal provisions impacting women's economic status. This report does not seek to judge or rank countries, but to provide information to inform discussions about women’s economic rights. Women, Business and the Law provides data covering 6 areas: accessing institutions,using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court.Read more about the methodology.

For detailed information on Iran, please visit the Women, Business and
the Law Iran
page.

Sources

The FAO Gender and Land Rights Database

FAO logo.jpg

The FAO Gender and Land Rights Database contains country level information on social, economic, political and cultural issues related to the gender inequalities embedded in those rights. Disparity on land access is one of the major causes for social and gender inequalities in rural areas, and it jeopardizes, as a consequence, rural food security as well as the wellbeing of individuals and families.

Six categories

The Database offers information on the 6 following Categories:

  • National legal frame
  • International treaties and conventions
  • Customary law 
  • Land tenure and related Institutions
  • Civil society organizations
  • Selected Land Related Statistics

For detailed information on Iran, please visit the report on Iran in the FAO Gender and Land Rights Database.

Sources

External Links


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