Gender Equality in Guinea

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Guinea
flag_Guinea.png
Flag of Guinea
Population (in Mil.) 1.66
Gross Domestic Product (In USD Billions - WB) 0.82
Sex Ratio (m/f) 1
Life Expectancy Ratio (f/m) 1.018181818
Fertility Rate 5.1
Estimated Earned Income (f/m) -
Tertiary Enrolment Ratio (f/m) 9.5
Women in Parliament (in %) -
INDICES
Human Development Index 178/187
Social Institutions and Gender Index 78/86
Gender Inequality Index 178/186
Gender Equity Index 158/168
Women’s Economic Opportunity Index - /128
Global Gender Gap Index - /68
More information on variables

Contents

Social Institutions

Guinea gained independence from France in 1958, and since then has been ruled by a succession of authoritarian rulers.[1] In December 2008, a military coup followed the death of president Lansana Conté, who had ruled Guinea for more than 24 years.[2] Elections promised in early 2009 did not take place. A transitional government is currently in place, and the political situation in the country remains unstable, with second round presidential elections that were due to take place in 2010 postponed indefinitely.[3] A Muslim-majority country, Guinea has rich mineral, hydropower, and agricultural resources, but remains poor and under developed.[4] Women in Guinea face many forms of discrimination. Guinean women are forced into polygamous marriages and do not have equal rights under divorce laws. Female genital mutilation (FGM) remains widely practised. Discrimination is most prevalent in rural areas, where women do not have access to land and have difficulty accessing farming equipment and other resources. The Constitution of Guinea was revised in 2001 to introduce the principles of non-discrimination and gender equality.[5] Article 8 upholds equality between men and women as a fundamental right.[6] Guinea ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women in 1982, but has yet to ratify the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa.[7] Since 1996, state policy regarding gender equality has been led by the Ministry for the Promotion of Women and Childhood.[8] As of 2007, Guinea’s Civil Code was being amended to remove a significant number of discriminatory measures regarding parental authority, divorce, child custody and the choice of a place of residence.[9] Guinea is classed as a low-income country by the World Bank.[10] Guinea has a Human Development Index (HDI) ranking of 0.344, placing it in 178th place out of 187 countries.[11] UNDP did not rank the country in Gender Inequality Index in 2011, and it is also not included in the 2011 Global Gender Gap Index.[12]

Discriminatory Family Code

Both men and women who have not attained 21 years cannot contract marriage without consent of father or, in case of his absence, of head of a household.[13]Only marriages conducted by an official of the civil registry are considered legal, and a registrar must verify the ages of the couple before the marriage is conducted.[14] However, early marriage is still practiced in Guinea. Data from the Demographic Household Survey (DHS) conducted in 2005 indicates that 37.9% of girls aged 15-19 were married, divorced, or widowed.[15] A 2005 report by UNICEF drawing on earlier DHS data (from 1999) gives a figure of 20.2% for women aged 20-24 who had been married by the age of 15, and 64.5% who had been married by the age of 18.[16] Lack of education seems to be a strong risk factor for early marriage: according to the data used in the 2005 UNICEF report, 86% of girls aged 15-19 who were married reported that they had no education at all.[17]In addition, according to the 2005 UNICEF report, 78.8% of women aged 20-24 who had been married before they turned 18 had husbands who were at least 15 years older than them.[18] This raises questions about power imbalances within such marriages, which could impact on the welfare and opportunities of young married women and their children.[19]

Polygamy is prohibited by law in Guinea.[20] UNICEF reports that 53% of women aged 15-49 are in polygynous unions.[21] There is clear relationship between early marriage and polygamy, with just under 80% of women aged 20-24 who had been married before they turned 18 reporting that they were in a polygynous union.[22] Neither the 2005 or 2007 state reports to the CEDAW committee mention polygamy at all, indicative perhaps of reluctance on the part of the authorities to address the issue.[23]

Husbands head Guinean households, have parental authority and benefit from all the related legal rights.[24] In the event of a Guinean woman having children with a foreigner, she is not able to pass on Guinean citizenship to those children (although they can opt to become Guinean citizens once they reach adulthood); this is one of the clauses that has been removed from the redrafted civil code.[25] In the event of divorce, women are only awarded custody of children until they reach the age of seven (again, this clause has been removed in the new draft civil code, with custody assigned according to the best interests of the child).[26] In clearly discriminatory practice, in cases where the father is deemed incapacitated and unable to exercise his parental authority, custody is often assigned to child’s uncle, over the mother.[27] Under the country’s Civil Code, widows only receive one-eighth of the total inheritance, the bulk of the estate being distributed to the couple’s children and first-degree descendants.[28] Under civil law, daughters have the same inheritance rights as sons.[29] In 2005, 25.4 % of widows (or their children) inherited the majority of assets after their spouses.[30]

Restricted Physical Integrity

The physical integrity of Guinean women is not sufficiently protected. The criminal code includes provisions relating to domestic violence,[31]and constitutes grounds for divorce according to civil law, but the police rarely intervene.[32] Reliable statistics as to prevalence rates are not available,[33] but a survey carried out in 2003 by the World Health Organisation (WHO) found that 22% of women considered themselves to have been victims of domestic violence at some time.[34] As most incidents are not reported and are dealt with within the family, it is likely that the actual prevalence rate is much higher.[35] Domestic violence appears to be widely accepted among women as a fact of married life: when presented with a list of five different ‘reasons’ for a man to beat his wife in the 2005 DHS questionnaire, 86% of women agreed with at least one of them.[36]

Rape is also punishable under the criminal code,[37] but a strong social stigma discourages women from pressing charges, and very few cases are prosecuted.[38] The law does not recognise the concept of spousal rape, and thus makes no special provisions for its punishment; rather, men and women view sex on demand as a husband’s right.[39] Sexual abuse of girls appears to be a significant problem: the US State Department reports that in 2006, girls between the ages of 11 and 15 represented 55% of all reported rape victims.[40]

Female genital mutilation (FGM) has been illegal under the Penal Code since 2000, and the government has supported national campaigns to promote eradication.[41] But legislation appears to have been largely ineffective. Data from the 2005 DHS indicates that 96% of women have undergone the procedure, with little variation in regard to place of residence (urban and rural), region, or education levels.[42] Support for continuing the practice was higher in rural areas.[43] Both Christian (61%) and Muslim (69%) supported the continuation of the practice.[44] One reason suggested by UNICEF for the extremely high levels of FGM in Guinea is the very low rate of secondary-school completion for girls (1%, according to 2005 DHS data), compared with 72% of Guinean women who have no education.[45] The high incidence of FGM is likely an underlying factor in the high rate of infant and maternal mortality observed in Guinea.[46] Some evidence suggests that the practice of FGM is on the decline: 69% of women said that they felt the practice should continue, citing social acceptance and religious approval,[47] and of women who had undergone the procedure, 54% reported that at least one of their daughters had also done so, indicating that attitudes may be changing.[48] Significantly, according to the most recent DHS data, 40% of men felt that the procedure was in no way beneficial, compared to just 10% of women.[49]

Guinea is a source, transit, and destination country for trafficking in persons for the purposes of forced labour and sexual exploitation.[50] Internal trafficking is more prevalent than cross-border trafficking, and the majority of victims are children.[51] This includes many young girls who are sent to work as domestic workers.[52]Human Rights Watch reports girls who work as live-in domestic servants in Guinea – some from as young as five – are particularly vulnerable to physical and sexual violence at the hands of their employers, as well as not being able to access education.[53] Reliable figures as to the numbers of girls employed as servants are unavailable, but of the children interviewed by Human Rights Watch for a report published in 2008, many worked extremely long hours, did not have access to adequate food, and were paid nothing, or very low salaries.[54] Some reported being beaten, raped, and verbally abused.[55] Under Guinean law, women have the right to decide the number and spacing of their children.[56] In 1999, a 12-year Population and Reproductive Health Project was launched by the government, to raise awareness and promote access to reproductive health services.[57] Access to contraception is provided at government hospitals, health centres, and family planning clinics.[58] Overall, knowledge of contraception in Guinea is high among women – 92.1% could name at least one method – but use remains low, with only 10.5% of sexually active women reporting that they regularly use contraception (including so-called ‘traditional’ methods).[59] Use rates are higher in urban than in rural areas.[60] Women’s access to reproductive and general health services may be controlled by their husbands: in the 2005 DHS, 50.6% of women reported that their husbands made decisions about their wives’ health without consulting them.[61] Abortion is only legal in cases where the pregnant woman’s life is in danger.[62]

Son Bias

DHS data from 2005 indicates that parents are slightly more likely to vaccinate boys than girls – 38.5% as against 35.9%, but that the infant mortality rate is higher for boys than for girls.[63] The same survey found a considerable discrepancy between the literacy levels of boys and girls aged 15-19 – 63.4% of girls could not read at all, against 33.4% of boys.[64] Son preference is not marked in regard to early childhood care, but is marked in regard to access to education, and may also be linked to the ongoing practice of early marriage. The male/female sex ratio for the total population in 2012 is 1.[65] There is no evidence to suggest that Guinea is a country of concern in relation to missing women.

Restricted Resources and Entitlements

Guinean legislation on ownership rights is quite favourable to women.[66] However, tradition prohibits women from having access to land even though the land law grants equal rights to women and men.[67] Women are entitled to hold land only on a usufruct basis, which authorises them to work family-owned land and draw a wage.[68] The Guinean Constitution guarantees men and women equal access to property other than land and, at the time of marriage, spouses can establish a contract specifying the division of ownership.[69] When women marry, they have the right to retain control over and use of assets which they own independently of their husbands.[70] Current legislation does not discriminate against women in Guinea in regard to their legal right to access bank loans and other forms of credit.[71] But in practice, access to bank loans is difficult for Guinean women, particularly in rural areas; this is mainly because they are unable to meet the conditions set by commercial banks.[72] Local credit systems have had limited impact.[73] As a result, a traditional form of accessing credit, the ‘tontine’, remains the main means by which many women access credit (according to the 2005 CEDAW report, 41% of tontine members at that time were women).[74]

Restricted Civil Liberties

Freedom of movement within the national territory is a constitutional right, but married women are not entitled to choose their place of residence: this is the husband’s right as head of the household, under article 331 of the civil code (this clause has been removed in the redrafted civil code).[75] Women’s movement may also be restricted on a day-to-day basis: in the 2005 DHS, 41.1% of women reported that they were unable to visit friends and relatives without their husband’s permission.[76] Media freedom is limited in Guinea, and journalists working for independent media outlets who criticise the government face intimidation, harassment, and arbitrary arrest.[77] Free or not, in the 2005 DHS 51% of women reported having no access to any form of media at all.[78] Freedom of association is severely limited in Guinea, in law and in practice.[79] September 2009 saw the massacre of 150 opposition protestors by security forces. [80] At the same event, many women are said to have been raped.[81]

Women have full right to equal participation with men in the formal political sphere.[82] As of 2007, there were 20 women deputies in the 114 seat National Assembly, and three women in the 23-member cabinet.[83] There are a large number of NGOs campaigning on women’s rights issues, such as land rights, harmful traditional practices, and access to education, as well as community-based organisations working primarily with rural women.[84] This has included an innovative campaign to encourage whole communities to abandon the practice of FGM together.[85]

Gender discrimination in employment is outlawed under Guinea’s labour code.[86] Pregnant women are entitled to 14 weeks paid maternity leave, and cannot be dismissed during this time.[87] Both these laws only apply to women working in the formal economy. In 2008, the World Bank considered 79% of women to be economically active.[88] An earlier study (from 2000) reported in the 2005 report to the CEDAW committee estimated that over 70% of women in employment worked in agriculture.[89] Continued hostility in society to the idea of women’s financial independence limits women’s employment opportunities in Guinea, as do low levels of education among women.[90] Homosexuality is illegal for women and men in Guinea, and punishable with up to 10 years imprisonment.[91]

References

  1. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) The World Factbook: Guinea , Washington, DC: CIA, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gv.html (accessed 29 October 2010).
  2. Amnesty International (2009) Amnesty International Report 2009, State of the World’s Human Rights, London: Amnesty International , p.160
  3. Al-jazeera (2010) ‘Guinea delays presidential poll ‘, 23 October 2010, http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2010/10/2010102342137691794.html (accessed 25 October 2010). ; Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) The World Factbook: Guinea , Washington, DC: CIA, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gv.html (accessed 29 October 2010).
  4. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2010) The World Factbook: Guinea , Washington, DC: CIA, online edition, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gv.html (accessed 29 October 2010).
  5. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010) , p.6
  6. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p.14
  7. United Nations Treaty Collection (n.d.) United Nations Treaty Conventions: Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women, countries ratified. http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8&chapter=4&lang=en (accessed 29 October 2010); African Union (2010) ‘List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa’ (as of 27 August 2010). http://www.africa-union.org/root/au/Documents/Treaties/List/Protocol%20on%20the%20Rights%20of%20Women.pdf (accessed 15 October 2010)
  8. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p.22
  9. See Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), and CEDAW (2007), Responses to the list of issues and questions with regard to the consideration of the combined fourth, fifth and sixth periodic reports of Guinea, CEDAW/C/GIN/Q/6/Add.1, CEDAW, New York. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010)
  10. World Bank (n.d.) ‘Data: Guinea’, http://data.worldbank.org/country/guinea (accessed 29 October 2010).
  11. United Nations Development Programme (2011) Human Development Report 2011, available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf, accessed 29 February 2012.p.129
  12. United Nations Development Programme (2011) Human Development Report 2011, available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf, accessed 29 February 2012.p.142; World Economic Forum (2011) The Global Gender Gap Report 2011, available at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2011.pdf, accessed 2 March 2012.
  13. Civil Code of Republic of Guinea, Article 284 (Code Civil de la Republique de Guinee)
  14. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p.9
  15. United Nations Population Division / DESA (2008), World Marriage Data 2008. Available to download at http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WMD2008/Main.html (accessed 11 October 2010).
  16. UNICEF (2005b), Early Marriage A Harmful Traditional Practice – A Statistical Exploration, New York: UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Early_Marriage_12.lo.pdf (accessed 21 October 2010)., p.31
  17. UNICEF (2005b), Early Marriage A Harmful Traditional Practice – A Statistical Exploration, New York: UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Early_Marriage_12.lo.pdf (accessed 21 October 2010)., p.33
  18. UNICEF (2005b), Early Marriage A Harmful Traditional Practice – A Statistical Exploration, New York: UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Early_Marriage_12.lo.pdf (accessed 21 October 2010)., p.33
  19. United Nations Population Division / DESA (2008), World Marriage Data 2008. Available to download at http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WMD2008/Main.html (accessed 11 October 2010).
  20. Article 316, Civil Code of the Republic of Guinea (Code Civil de la Republique de Guinee)
  21. UNICEF (2005b), Early Marriage A Harmful Traditional Practice – A Statistical Exploration, New York: UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Early_Marriage_12.lo.pdf (accessed 21 October 2010)., p.21
  22. UNICEF (2005b), Early Marriage A Harmful Traditional Practice – A Statistical Exploration, New York: UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Early_Marriage_12.lo.pdf (accessed 21 October 2010)., p.7
  23. See Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), CEDAW (2007), Responses to the list of issues and questions with regard to the consideration of the combined fourth, fifth and sixth periodic reports of Guinea, CEDAW/C/GIN/Q/6/Add.1, CEDAW, New York. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010)
  24. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p.19
  25. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p.15
  26. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010) p.19
  27. ECOSOC (United Nations Economic and Social Council) (2003), Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, UN, New York, NY., p.64
  28. Articles 484-485, Civil Code of the Republic of Guinea (Code Civil de la Republique de Guinee)
  29. CEDAW (2007), Responses to the list of issues and questions with regard to the consideration of the combined fourth, fifth and sixth periodic reports of Guinea, CEDAW/C/GIN/Q/6/Add.1, CEDAW, New York. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010)M, p.11
  30. Chronic Poverty Research Centre (2011) Widowhood and asset inheritance in sub-Saharan Africa: empirical evidence from 15 countries, available at http://www.chronicpoverty.org/uploads/publication_files/WP183%20Peterman.pdf, accessed 7 March 2012., p.20
  31. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p.12
  32. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Guinea’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135957.htm (accessed 25 October 2010)
  33. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Guinea’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135957.htm (accessed 25 October 2010)
  34. CEDAW (2007), Responses to the list of issues and questions with regard to the consideration of the combined fourth, fifth and sixth periodic reports of Guinea, CEDAW/C/GIN/Q/6/Add.1, CEDAW, New York. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p.16
  35. CEDAW (2007), Responses to the list of issues and questions with regard to the consideration of the combined fourth, fifth and sixth periodic reports of Guinea, CEDAW/C/GIN/Q/6/Add.1, CEDAW, New York. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p.17; ECOSOC (United Nations Economic and Social Council) (2003), Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, UN, New York, NY., p.64
  36. Direction Nationale de la Statistique (DNS) and ORC Macro (2006b) ‘Guinea: DHS, 2005 - Final Report (French)’, Calverton, Maryland, U.S.A.: DNS and ORC Macro. http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=582&ctry_id=67&SrchTp=ctry&flag=sur&cn=Guinea), p.54
  37. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p.14
  38. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Guinea’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135957.htm (accessed 25 October 2010); ECOSOC (United Nations Economic and Social Council) (2003), Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, UN, New York, NY., p.64
  39. ECOSOC (United Nations Economic and Social Council) (2003), Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1, UN, New York, NY., p.64
  40. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Guinea’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135957.htm (accessed 25 October 2010)
  41. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p.14, p.48; US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Guinea’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135957.htm (accessed 25 October 2010)
  42. Direction Nationale de la Statistique (DNS) and ORC Macro (2006b) ‘Guinea: DHS, 2005 - Final Report (French)’, Calverton, Maryland, U.S.A.: DNS and ORC Macro. http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=582&ctry_id=67&SrchTp=ctry&flag=sur&cn=Guinea), p.8
  43. UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) (2005a), Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Exploration, UNICEF, New York, NY. Available at http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/FGM-C_final_10_October.pdf (accessed 11 October 2010), p.21
  44. UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) (2005a), Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Exploration, UNICEF, New York, NY. Available at http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/FGM-C_final_10_October.pdf (accessed 11 October 2010), p.22
  45. UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) (2005a), Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Exploration, UNICEF, New York, NY. Available at http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/FGM-C_final_10_October.pdf (accessed 11 October 2010), p.9; Direction Nationale de la Statistique (DNS) and ORC Macro (2006a) ‘Guinea Demographic and Health Survey 2005: Key Findings’. Calverton, Maryland, U.S.A.: DNS and ORC Macro. http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pdf/SR116/SR116.pdf (accessed 25 October 2010)., p.4
  46. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Guinea’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135957.htm (accessed 25 October 2010)
  47. Direction Nationale de la Statistique (DNS) and ORC Macro (2006a) ‘Guinea Demographic and Health Survey 2005: Key Findings’. Calverton, Maryland, U.S.A.: DNS and ORC Macro. http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pdf/SR116/SR116.pdf (accessed 25 October 2010)., p.8
  48. UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) (2005a), Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Exploration, UNICEF, New York, NY. Available at http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/FGM-C_final_10_October.pdf (accessed 11 October 2010), p.6
  49. Direction Nationale de la Statistique (DNS) and ORC Macro (2006b) ‘Guinea: DHS, 2005 - Final Report (French)’, Calverton, Maryland, U.S.A.: DNS and ORC Macro. http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=582&ctry_id=67&SrchTp=ctry&flag=sur&cn=Guinea), p.233
  50. CEDAW (2007), Responses to the list of issues and questions with regard to the consideration of the combined fourth, fifth and sixth periodic reports of Guinea, CEDAW/C/GIN/Q/6/Add.1, CEDAW, New York. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010, p.9; US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Guinea’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135957.htm (accessed 25 October 2010)
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  66. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development), ILC (International Land Coalition) (2004), Rural Women’s Access to Land and Property in Selected Countries: Progress Towards Achieving the Aims of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, FAO Gender and Population Division, IFAD Technical Advisory Division, and ILC, Rome. http://www.landcoalition.org/pdf/cedawrpt.pdf (accessed 4 December 2010), p.33
  67. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development), ILC (International Land Coalition) (2004), Rural Women’s Access to Land and Property in Selected Countries: Progress Towards Achieving the Aims of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, FAO Gender and Population Division, IFAD Technical Advisory Division, and ILC, Rome. http://www.landcoalition.org/pdf/cedawrpt.pdf (accessed 4 December 2010), p.33
  68. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development), ILC (International Land Coalition) (2004), Rural Women’s Access to Land and Property in Selected Countries: Progress Towards Achieving the Aims of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, FAO Gender and Population Division, IFAD Technical Advisory Division, and ILC, Rome. http://www.landcoalition.org/pdf/cedawrpt.pdf (accessed 4 December 2010), p.33
  69. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010) , p.17
  70. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010) , p.19
  71. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010) , p.36
  72. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010) , p.36
  73. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p.36
  74. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p36
  75. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010) , p.17
  76. Direction Nationale de la Statistique (DNS) and ORC Macro (2006b) ‘Guinea: DHS, 2005 - Final Report (French)’, Calverton, Maryland, U.S.A.: DNS and ORC Macro. http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=582&ctry_id=67&SrchTp=ctry&flag=sur&cn=Guinea), p.53
  77. Amnesty International (2009) Amnesty International Report 2009, State of the World’s Human Rights, London: Amnesty International , , p.161; US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Guinea’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135957.htm (accessed 25 October 2010)
  78. Direction Nationale de la Statistique (DNS) and ORC Macro (2006b) ‘Guinea: DHS, 2005 - Final Report (French)’, Calverton, Maryland, U.S.A.: DNS and ORC Macro. http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=582&ctry_id=67&SrchTp=ctry&flag=sur&cn=Guinea (accessed 25 October 2010).Direction Nationale de la Statistique (DNS) and ORC Macro (2006b) ‘Guinea: DHS, 2005 - Final Report (French)’, Calverton, Maryland, U.S.A.: DNS and ORC Macro. http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pub_details.cfm?ID=582&ctry_id=67&SrchTp=ctry&flag=sur&cn=Guinea), p.44
  79. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Guinea’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135957.htm (accessed 25 October 2010
  80. Freedom House (2010) ‘Map of Freedom in the World: Guinea’, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=363&year=2010&country=7833 (accessed 25 October 2010).
  81. Freedom House (2010) ‘Map of Freedom in the World: Guinea’, online edition, http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=363&year=2010&country=7833 (accessed 25 October 2010).; Human Rights Watch (2009) ‘Bloody Monday The September 28 Massacre and Rapes by Security Forces in Guinea’, Human Rights Watch, New Yorkpp.47-61
  82. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p.21
  83. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Guinea’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135957.htm (accessed 25 October 2010)
  84. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010) , p.23, p.44
  85. US Department of State (2010) ‘2009 Country Reports on Human Rights: Guinea’, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135957.htm (accessed 25 October 2010
  86. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010) , p.31
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  89. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p.32
  90. Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (2005) ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Guinea’, Combined Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports of States Parties, CEDAW/C/GIN/4-6, CEDAW, New York, NY. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws39.htm (accesed 29 October 2010), p.31
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The Women, Business and the Law

Where are laws equal for men and women?  

The Women, Business and the Law report presents indicators based on laws and regulations affecting women's prospects as entrepreneurs and employees. Several of these indicators draw on the Gender Law Library, a collection of over 2,000 legal provisions impacting women's economic status. This report does not seek to judge or rank countries, but to provide information to inform discussions about women’s economic rights. Women, Business and the Law provides data covering 6 areas: accessing institutions, using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court. Read more about the methodology.

For detailed information on Guinea, please visit the Women, Business and
the Law Guinea
page.

Sources

Progress Assessment of MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

Millennium Development Goal #3 is divided into three sub-categories, each of them focusing on different areas: education, employment wage and political power.

Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education

In the primary education sector, the ratio of girls to boys in Guinea was at 0.89 in 2009. In comparison for 1994, it was at 0.5. As in many countries, substantial progress has been noted for the primary level of education. Indeed, for secondary and tertiary levels of education, it was respectively at 0.55 and projected to be at 0.3 in 2008. Projections made by Guinea's government deem as close to the target for the primary level of education (0.95 for 2015) and are more pessimistic for the two other levels (0.72 for the secondary nd 0.37 for the tertiary)[1]

Thus, parity will not likely happen in school enrollment in Guinea.

Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector

Among Guinea's workforce in the non-agricultural sector, women represented 27.1% of it in 2003. In the civil service of Guinea, they count for 26% of workforce and 20% of the personnel in the education sector for 2007[2]

Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament

In 2006, out of 114 representatives at the national Parliament, 22 were women (19.3%). Progress has been slagging in this sector since that percentage was reduced to 16.7% in 2007. 17% of the high officials of the Guinean republic were women in 2006.

Guinea's MDG Track Index by Goal in 2010

Overall the MDG Track Global Index for Guinea is at 29% and the country is deemed as "off-track" concerning the targets of the Millennium Development[3]


References

  1. Programme des Nations-Unies pour le Développement. République de Guinée. 2009.Rapport national sur les objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développmemnt
  2. Programme des Nations-Unies pour le Développement. République de Guinée. 2009.Rapport national sur les objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développmemnt.
  3. MDG Track Global Index. Guinea
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