Crime against Women in India, 2007
The National Crime Records Bureau (India) has released the statistics on crime against women in India for the year 2007, and although women may be victims of any of the general crimes such as ‘murder’, ‘robbery’, ‘cheating’, etc, only the crimes which are directed specifically against Women are characterised as ‘Crimes against Women’.
Reported Incidents of Crime (1, 85,312)
A total of 1,85,312 incidents of crime against women (both under IPC and other laws) were reported in the country during 2007 as compared to 1,64,765 during 2006 recording an increase of 12.5% during 2007. These crimes have continuously increased during 2003-2007 with 1,40,601 cases in 2003, 1,54,333 cases in 2004, 1,55,553 in 2005, 1,64,765 cases in 2006 and 1,85,312 cases in 2007.
Andhra Pradesh, accounting for nearly 7.2% of the country’s population, has accounted for 13.3% of total incidents of crime against women in the country by reporting 24,738 cases.
Uttar Pradesh, with nearly 16.6% share of country’s population has accounted for 11.3% of total crime against women by reporting 20,993 cases in 2007.
Crime Rate (16.3)
The rate of crime has increased marginally from 14.7 during the year 2006 to 16.3 during 2007.
Tripura and Andhra Pradesh were the top two States in the order of crime rate at 30.7 and 30.3 respectively.
Crime against women has increased by 12.5% over 2006 and by 31.8% over 2003. The IPC (Indian Penal Code) component of crimes against women has accounted for 94.4% of total crimes and the rest 5.6% were SLL crimes against women.
The proportion of IPC crimes committed against women towards total IPC crimes has increased continually during last 5 years from 7.6% in 2003 to 8.8% during 2007.
Rape (Sec. 376 IPC) (Incidence 20,737; Rate 1.8)
An increasing trend in cases of rape has been observed during 2003-2007. These cases reported a substantial increase of 15.0% in 2004 over 2003, a marginal increase of 0.7% in 2005 over 2004, an increase of 5.4% in 2006 over 2005 and an increase of 7.2% in 2007 over 2006.
Madhya Pradesh has reported the highest number of rape cases (3,010) accounting for 14.5% of total such cases reported in the country. However, Mizoram has reported the highest crime rate 8.5 as compared to national average of 1.8.
Rape cases have been further categorised as incest rape and other rape cases.
Incest Rape (Incidence 405)
Incest cases have decreased by 6.0% from 431 cases in 2006 to 405 cases in 2007 as compared to 7.2% increase in overall rape cases.
West Bengal (114) has accounted for the highest 28.1% of the total such cases reported in the country.
There were 20,771 victims of rape in the 20,737 reported rape cases in the country.
9.5% (1,972) of the total victims of rape were girls under 15 years of age, while 15.2% (3,152) were teenaged girls (15-18 years).
Nearly two-third (11,984) (57.7%) were women in the age-group 18-30 years.
3,530 victims (17.0%) were in the age-group of 30-50 years while 0.6% (133) were over 50 years of age.
Offenders were known to the victims in as many as 19,188 (92.5%) cases.
Parents/close family members were involved in 2.1% (405 out of 19,188) of these cases.
Neighbours were involved in 36.0% cases (6,902 out of 19,188) and relatives were involved in 7.5% (1,448 out of 19,188) cases.
Kidnapping & Abduction (Sec. 363-373 IPC) (Incidence 20,416; Rate 1.8)
These cases have reported an increase of 17.2% as compared to previous year (17,414).
Uttar Pradesh (3,363) has accounted for 16.5% of the total cases at the National level. Delhi reported the highest rate at 7.0 as compared to the national average of 1.8.
Dowry Deaths (Sec. 302, 304B IPC) (Incidence 8,093; Rate 0.7)
These cases have increased by 6.2% over the previous year (7,618).
25.7% of the total such cases reported in the country were reported from Uttar Pradesh (2,076) alone followed by Bihar (1,172) (14.5%). The highest rate of crime (1.3) was reported from Bihar as compared to the national average of 0.7.
Torture (Cruelty by Husband & Relatives) (Sec. 498A IPC) (Incidence 75,930; Rate 6.7)
Torture cases in the country have increased by 20.3% over the previous year (63,128).
14.9% of these were reported from Andhra Pradesh (11,335). The highest rate of 15.7 was reported from Tripura as compared to the National rate at 6.7.
Molestation (Sec. 354 IPC) (Incidence 38,734; Rate 3.4)
Incidents of molestation in the country have increased by 5.8% over the previous year (36,617).
Madhya Pradesh reported the highest incidence (6,772) amounting to 17.5% of total such cases as well as the highest rate (9.9) as compared to the national average of 3.4.
Sexual Harassment (Sec. 509 IPC) (Incidence 10,950; Rate 1.0)
The number of such cases has increased by 9.9% over the previous year (10,950).
Andhra Pradesh reported 30.3% of cases (3,316) followed by Uttar Pradesh 26.3% (2,882).
Andhra Pradesh has reported the highest crime rate 4.1 as compared to the national average of 1.0.
Importation of Girls (Sec. 366-B IPC) (Incidence 61)
A decrease of 9.0% has been observed in such cases as 61 cases were reported during the year 2007 as compared to 67 cases in the previous year (2006).
Only Bihar (56) and West Bengal (5) have reported such cases accounting for 91.8% and 8.2% respectively of total such cases at the national level.
Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act (Incidence 3,568; Rate 0.3)
Cases under this Act have registered a decline of 21.4% during the year as compared to the previous year (4,541).
33.6% (1,199) cases were reported from Tamil Nadu whereas Daman & Diu reported the highest crime rate of 2.7 as compared to the national average of 0.3.
Sati Prevention Act (Incidence 0)
No case was reported across the country during the year 2007 as in 2006.
Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act (Incidence 1,200; Rate 0.1)
A decline of 23.2% was noticed in cases under this Act as compared to previous year (1,562).
Andhra Pradesh with 1,005 cases has accounted for 83.8% of total such cases at the national level which has also reported the highest crime rate of 1.2 as compared to the national average rate of 0.1.
Dowry Prohibition Act (Incidence 5,623; Rate 0.5)
The cases under this Act have increased by 24.8% as compared to the previous year (4,504).
One-fourth (26.0%) cases were reported from Orissa (1,460) followed by Bihar (978) accounting for 17.4% of total cases at the national level. The highest crime rate was also reported from Orissa at 3.7 as compared to 0.5 at the national level.
Crime against Women in Cities (All-India 1, 85,312; Cities 24,709)
35 cities having population over 10 lakh (1 million) have been identified as mega cities as per population census 2001. A total of 24,709 cases of crimes against women were reported from these 35 cities as compared to 21,861 cases in the year 2006 reporting an increase of 13.0%. The rate of crime in cities at 22.9 was comparatively higher as compared to the national rate of 16.3.
Among 35 cities, Delhi (4,331) has accounted for 17.5% of total crimes followed by Hyderabad (1,931) (7.8%). The crime rate was significantly higher in Vijayawada and Vishakhapatnam at 96.2 and 56.7 respectively as compared to national average of mega cities at 16.3.
Delhi city has accounted for 29.5% of rape cases, 31.8% of kidnapping & abduction cases, 15.6% of dowry deaths, 14.2% of cruelty by husband and relatives and 21.5% of molestation cases among 35 cities.
[The Delhi police commissioner Mr. YS Dadwal, while releasing crime statistics in the national capital, said Delhi reported 466 cases of rape in 2008, and 452 in 2009. Of these 94.25% were solved by the police. Of the accused persons arrested in cases of rape, 35 were relatives of victims, 64 were friends, 212 were neighbours, and 12 were persons unknown to the victims. 129 cases of rape were attempted by “other” unknown persons. Of those arrested, 83% were illiterate or school dropouts, 67% were below 25 years of age and 68% belonged to the “low economic classes.”
According to the commissioner, 532 cases of molestation were reported in 2009 as compared to 597 cases in 2008, a reduction of about 13%. Neighbours were involved in 47% of the molestation cases, friends in 4%, relatives in 6% and strangers in 5% of the cases. Of the 686 people arrested in molestation cases, 56% were illiterate or school dropouts and 64% were below 25 years of age. Source: The Statesman, January 3, 2010]
Vijayawada has reported 11.3% of cases of eve-teasing. It is worthwhile to mention that Bengaluru (Bangalore), Chennai (Madras), Mumbai (Bombay) and Jaipur have booked more cases under Special & Local Laws among the mega cities.
26.4% (345 out of 1,305) of cases under Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act and 69.2% (265 out of 383) of Dowry Prohibition Act cases were booked in Bengaluru city alone. Similarly, 15.5% (202 out of 1,305) and 14.2% (185 out of 1,305) cases under Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act were booked in Chennai and Mumbai respectively. 90.9% (40 out of 44) of Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act cases were booked in Jaipur city alone.
Female Juvenile Criminals
A total of 34,527 juveniles were apprehended during 2007 out of which 32,671 were boys and 1,856 were girls. The percentage of girls to total juveniles comes to 5.4% i.e. 0.1 percentage point less than share relating to 2006 (5.5)
Beijing: Why Statistics on Violence/Crime against Women are Important
According to the Beijing Platform for Action adopted at the Fourth United Nations World Conference on Women in 1995:
Violence against women is an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of equality, development and peace. Violence against women both violates and impairs or nullifies the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms. The long-standing failure to protect and promote those rights and freedoms in the case of violence against women is a matter of concern to all States and should be addressed. (paragraph 112)
The Beijing Platform for Action also emphasized the importance of reliable statistical data in understanding violence against women and recommended that work be done to:
promote research, collect data and compile statistics, especially concerning domestic violence relating to the prevalence of different forms of violence against women, and encourage research into the causes, nature, seriousness and consequences of violence against women and the effectiveness of measures implemented to prevent and redress violence against women. (paragraph 129a)
- Gender Equality in India
- Women and Men in India, 2010
- Women in India: Statistical Indicators, 2007
- Indian Laws relating to Women and Children
- Ministry of Women and Child Development
- National Commission for Women
- Domestic Violence in India
- "Female Genocide" in India
- Homosexuality: An "Unnatural Offence" in India
- Violence against Women
- Crime against Women in India, 2010