The 1976 Constitution of Cuba, along with constitutional amendments made in 1992, upholds the principle of equality between men and women and discrimination is formally prohibited. The Penal Code stipulates that infringements of “the right to equality” are punishable by imprisonment (according to Article 295 of the Criminal Code).
However, Cuban women are the main victims of poverty and social exclusion in the country. They not only suffer from gender bias in public policies, but also from the weight of tradition, which imposes particular tasks on women. Male chauvinism is still very prevalent.
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The Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) measures gender-based discrimination in social norms, practices and laws across 160 countries. The SIGI comprises country profiles, a classification of countries and a database; it serves as a research, policy and advocacy tool for the development community and policy makers.
The SIGI covers five dimensions of discriminatory social institutions, spanning major socio-economic areas that affect women’s lives: discriminatory family code, restricted physical integrity, son bias, restricted resources and assets, and restricted civil liberties. The SIGI’s variables quantify discriminatory social institutions such as unequal inheritance rights, early marriage, violence against women, and unequal land and property rights.
In the Social Institutions and Gender Index 2014 Edition , Cuba has very low levels of discrimination against women in social institutions. It has lower discrimination in son bias and higher discrimination in discriminatory family code. Read the full country profile and access the data here: http://www.genderindex.org/country/cuba
The FAO Gender and Land Rights Database
The FAO Gender and Land Rights Database contains country level information on social, economic, political and cultural issues related to the gender inequalities embedded in those rights. Disparity on land access is one of the major causes for social and gender inequalities in rural areas, and it jeopardizes, as a consequence, rural food security as well as the wellbeing of individuals and families.
The Database offers information on the 6 following Categories:
- National legal frame
- International treaties and conventions
- Customary law
- Land tenure and related Institutions
- Civil society organizations
- Selected Land Related Statistics